La presencia judía en Uruguay/ The Jewish Presence in Uruguay

Montevideo

Sinagoga del la Comunidad Israelita del Uruguay
Sinagoga de la Comunidad Sefardí de Uruguay
Instituto Yavne y Sinagoga

Punta del Este

Sinagoga de Punta del Este
Sinagoga Adjut Israel de Punta del Este

Artistas del Uruguay/Artists of Uruguay

José Gurvich

José Gurvich https://wordpress.com/block-editor/post/jewishlatinamerica.wordpress.com/7914

Jaime Kleist

https://wordpress.com/block-editor/post/jewishlatinamerica.wordpress.com/2913

Eva Olivetti

Raúl Pavlotsky

Aída Socolovsky

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Escritores del Uruguay/Artists of Uruguay

Julia Galimare https://wordpress.com/block-editor/post/jewishlatinamerica.wordpress.com/1731

Raúl Hecht https://wordpress.com/block-editor/post/jewishlatinamerica.wordpress.com/2151

Exelyn Wertheimer https://wordpress.com/block-editor/post/jewishlatinamerica.wordpress.com/2413

Mauricio Rosencof

David Viñas (1927-2011) — Crítico social y novelista judío-argentino/Argentine Social Critic and Novelist — “Los dueños de la tierra”/”The Owners of the Earth” — fragmento/excerpt

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David Viñas

 

Viñas, David

David Viñas nació en Buenos Aires en 1929. Estudió en el Liceo militar a causa de los problemas económicos familiares. Estudió Filosofía y Letras, allí conoció a algunos intelectuales. Fue uno de los fundadores, en 1953, de la revista Contorno. Al poco tiempo publicó su primera novela Cayó sobre su rostro. Recibió en 1962 el Premio Nacional de Literatura. En 1967 fue galardonado con el Premio Casa de las Américas, de La Habana (. También ha sido capital su aportación al ensayo con libros como Literatura argentina y realidad política: de Sarmiento a Cortázar o Rebeliones populares argentinas: De los montoneros a los anarquistas. La dictadura le robó a sus dos hijos, ambos acaban de ser padres cuando los detuvieron, y fueron desaparecidos por los militares, y lo obligó a exiliarse en México y España. En México fundó la editorial Tierra del Fuego junto a Pedro Orgambide, Jorge Boccanera, Alberto Ádelach y Humberto Costantini, en 1981. En 1984 pudo regresar a Argentina tras el fin de la dictadura. Fue nombrado titular de la Cátedra de Literatura Argentina de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. En los años siguientes se sucedieron los estrenos teatrales. En 1991 recibió la la Beca Guggenheim pero la rechazó como homenaje a sus hijos.

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David Viñas was born in Buenos Aires in 1929. He studied at the Military Lyceum because of family financial problems. He studied Philosophy and Letters, there he met some intellectuals. He was one of the founders, in 1953, of the magazine Contorno. Soon after, he published his first novel. It fell on his face. He received in 1962 the National Prize for Literature. In 1967 he was awarded the Casa de las Américas Prize. His contribution to the essay has also been capital with books such as Argentine literature and political reality: from Sarmiento to Cortázar or Argentine popular rebellions: From the montoneros to the anarchists. The dictatorship stole his two sons, both of whom had just become parents when they were detained, and who were disappeared by the military, and forced him into exile in Mexico and Spain. In Mexico he founded the Tierra del Fuego publishing house together with Pedro Orgambide, Jorge Boccanera , Alberto Ádelach and Humberto Costantini, in 1981. In 1984 he was able to return to Argentina after the end of the dictatorship.He was appointed holder of the Chair of Argentine Literature at the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. Theatrical premieres followed, in 1991 he received the Guggenheim Scholarship but rejected it as a tribute to his children.

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De la novela “Los Dueños de la tierra”, 1958

 

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“Esos de la Guardia Blanca”

Claro que estaban ésos de la guardia blanca. Vicente ya los conocía; en Buenos Aires, desde su departamento de la calle Ayacucho los había visto golpear a la gente del barrio en la semana de enero en 19.[i] Y rompían vidrieras y ensuciaban las sinagogas. Había sido un lunes y por las calles de la ciudad deambulaban algunos hombres solitarios y sudorosos, con las corbatas flojas y el saco en la mano. Los que acababa de ver en el puerto y los que tiraban bombas de alquitrán contra las sinagogas de Buenos Aires se parecían, desde la manera de golpear y reírse al mismo tiempo, hasta la insolencia se confeccionaban para insultar y pararse en medio de la calle con las piernas abiertas. Eran tipos que gritaban”—Judío sucio” con la misma calma que se instalaban a la salida de un jardín israelita para obligarles a cantar el Himno, “Oíd mortales el grito sagrado!” Sí, pensaba. Y desde su balcón de la calle Ayacucho había visto a esos chiquilines que cantaban destempladamente, espiando a sus maestras y esperando que les ordenasen que se callaran de una vez porque el Himno no se canta así, o que se largaran a correr hacia sus casas. Pero en 1910, cuando el Centenario.él, él mismo, Vicente había hecho algo parecido. Era más joven claro. Pero las balas de su revólver corrían por debajo del paño verde de los billares en esos cafés oscuros y bajos de la calle Libertad. Dos, tres, seis tiros sobre esas mesas mientras los parroquianos se apoyaban en sus tacos con inquietud hieráticos, extranjeros, pero con esa silenciosa y acusadora dignidad de las víctimas. Había olor a pólvora en aquella sala de billar. Un judío de rancho, insignificante, había seguido frotando la tiza sobre su taco. Vicente vació su revólver sobre una de las mesas de billar. Las balas se deslizaban por debajo del paño como unos extraños gusanos veloces y aturdidos. Eso había sido para divertirse, por cierto. Como él iba a pasar sus horas muertas en uno de los prostíbulos enfrente a los tribunales, le quedaba cerca. Era una diversión cercana. “Un trabajo a un paso de la farra”, comentaban en el Gimnasia y Esgrima. Los tribunales de un lado, y a la vuelta, el prostíbulo y los billares judíos de la calle Libertad. Todo ahí no más. ”Un verdadero centro de diversiones” proclamaba entonces. Pero es que todos los prostíbulos estaban atestados de judíos y muchos judíos andaban en ese negocio.[iii] “Las polacas”, les decían los amigos en el club. “Y una polaca le da vuelta y media a cinco francesas”.  Y todos se divertían con las judías que al fin de cuentas, eran lo mismo. Él, sus compañeros de la facultad en el año del Centenario y la guardia blanca en la semana de enero del 19. Pero con la diferencia que él lo había hecho para pasar el rato, total, no eran más que los paños de los billares. Además, unos días después había ido a pagarlos. Pasar el rato, de eso se trataba, porque él no tenía nada contra los judíos, que eran gente trabajadora y no se metían con nadie. Aunque un poco… un poco… ¿Cómo diría?, calculaba Vicente. Poco elegantes. Ahí estaba. No eran lindos los judíos y qué se la iba a hacer. Se nacío fiero o se nacía con pinta de macho. Una vez le habían comentado en la mesa de Ingenieros: “Usted es el precursor de las guardias blancas. Verá—“ Y Vicente no había sabido si se lo decían en serio o en divertirse. Él no tenía prejuicios. Y no pensaba eso para darse una explicación que lo tranquilizarse.

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[i] La Semana Trágica es el nombre con el que se conoce la represión y masacre sufrida por el movimiento obrero argentino, en la que fueron asesinadas cientos de personas en Buenos Aires, en la segunda semana de enero de 1919, La misma incluyó el único pogromo (matanza de judíos) del que se tiene registro en América. Dentro de la Semana Trágica se produjo el único pogromo (matanza de judíos) del que hay registro en el continente americano. El pogromo tuvo su epicentro en el barrio judío de Once. El pogromo se desató cuando promediaba la Semana Trágica y se sumaron a la represión los civiles de clase alta, Fue llevado a cabo por la Liga Patriótica Argentina, “la guardia blanca”; incendiaron sinagogas. Hubo centenares de muertos

[ii] La prostitución en Argentina fue dominada por judíos por muchos años. Fue terminado por protesta vehementes de la comunidad judía y legislación del gobiernos.

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From the novel: “The Rulers of the Earth, 1958”

 

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“Those of the White Guard”

 

Of course, those of the White Guard were there. Vicente knew them already; in Buenos Aires, from his apartment on Ayacucho Street, he had seen them strike the people of the neighborhood in the January week of 1919. And they broke store windows and the befouled the synagogues. It had been a Monday and solitary and sweaty men wandered the streets, with their ties loose and their jackets in their hands. Those that he had just seen in the port and those who threw tar bombs at the synagogues of Buenos Aires seemed, from their manner to punch and laugh at the same time, to the insolence they had for insulting and stopping in the middle of the street with their legs apart. They were guys who shouted “Dirty Jew” with the same calmness who stood in the exit of a Jewish kindergarten to force them to sing the National Anthem, “Hear, O Mortals, the sacred shout!” Ye, he thought. And from his balcony on Ayacucho Street he had seen those little ones who were singing off-key, spying at their teachers and hoping that they would order them to be quiet at once because the Anthem was not song in that way, or that they leave to run home. But in 1910, which was the Centenary, he, he himself, Vicente had done something similar. Surely, he was younger. But the bullets from his revolver shot below the green cloth of the billiard tables in those dark and humble cafes on Libertad Street. Two, three, six shots over those tables while the neighbors were leaning on their cues. A Jew from the farms, insignificant, had continued rubbing the chalk on his cue. Vicente opened his revolver on a billiard table. The bullets slid under the billiard cloth like some strange and confused worms. This was for fun, of course. Just like he was going to spend his free time in one of the brothels near the courts. It was a nearby diversion. Work just a step from the party, they commented at Gym and Fencing . The gym on one side and, around the corner the Jewish brothel and billiard parlors on Liberty Street. Everything there. That’s it. A true center of entertainment, they proclaimed in those days. But it was that all the brothels were filled with Jews and many Jews were in that business.The Polish girls”, his friends in the club called them.  “And a Polish girl gives you more than five French girls and they all had a good time with the Jewish girls who, in the end were the same ones. He, his buddies from the college, in the year of the Centenary and the White Guards in the January week of 1919. But the difference was that he had done it to pass the time, they weren’t more that cloths on billiard tables, that’s all. Moreover, a few days later, he went over to pay for them. To pass the time, that’s what it was about. Because he didn’t have anything against the Jews, who were hard working people and don’t bother anyone. Although a little… a little. How would you say it?, Vicente  reckoned. Not elegant. That was it. The Jews weren’t attractive and what are you going to do. You are born fierce or you were born with a macho look. He had once heard commented at the Engineer’s table. “You are precursor of the White Guards. You’ll see.” And Vicente didn’t know whether if it was said to him seriously or in jest. He didn’t have prejudices. And he wasn’t thinking that to give himself an explanation that would calm him down.

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“Those of the White Guard”

 

Of course, those of the White Guard were there. Vicente knew them already; in Buenos Aires, from his apartment on Ayacucho Street, he had seen them strike the people of the neighborhood in the January week of 1919. [i]And they broke store windows and the befouled the synagogues. It had been a Monday and solitary and sweaty men wandered the streets, with their ties loose and their jackets in their hands. Those that he had just seen in the port and those who threw tar bombs at the synagogues of Buenos Aires seemed, from their manner to punch and laugh at the same time, to the insolence they had for insulting and stopping in the middle of the street with their legs apart. They were guys who shouted “Dirty Jew” with the same calmness who stood in the exit of a Jewish kindergarten to force them to sing the National Anthem, “Hear, O Mortals, the sacred shout!” Ye, he thought. And from his balcony on Ayacucho Street he had seen those little ones who were singing off-key, spying at their teachers and hoping that they would order them to be quiet at once because the Anthem was not song in that way, or that they leave to run home. But in 1910, which was the Centenary, he, he himself, Vicente had done something similar. Surely, he was younger. But the bullets from his revolver shot below the green cloth of the billiard tables in those dark and humble cafes on Libertad Street. Two, three, six shots over those tables while the neighbors were leaning on their cues. A Jew from the farms, insignificant, had continued rubbing the chalk on his cue. Vicente opened his revolver on a billiard table. The bullets slid under the billiard cloth like some strange and confused worms. This was for fun, of course. Just like he was going to spend his free time in one of the brothels near the courts. It was a nearby diversion. Work just a step from the party, they commented at Gym and Fencing . The gym on one side and, around the corner the Jewish brothel and billiard parlors on Liberty Street. Everything there. That’s it. A true center of entertainment, they proclaimed in those days. But it was that all the brothels were filled with Jews and many Jews were in that business. [ii]The Polish girls”, his friends in the club called them.  “And a Polish girl gives you more than five French girls and they all had a good time with the Jewish girls who, in the end were the same ones. He, his buddies from the college, in the year of the Centenary and the White Guards in the January week of 1919. But the difference was that he had done it to pass the time, they weren’t more that cloths on billiard tables, that’s all. Moreover, a few days later, he went over to pay for them. To pass the time, that’s what it was about. Because he didn’t have anything against the Jews, who were hard working people and don’t bother anyone. Although a little… a little. How would you say it?, Vicente  reckoned. Not elegant. That was it. The Jews weren’t attractive and what are you going to do. You are born fierce or you were born with a macho look. He had once heard commented at the Engineer’s table. “You are precursor of the White Guards. You’ll see.” And Vicente didn’t know whether if it was said to him seriously or in jest. He didn’t have prejudices. And he wasn’t thinking that to give himself an explanation that would calm him down.

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[i] Tragic Week is the name by which the repression and massacre suffered by the Argentine labor movement is known, in which hundreds of people were murdered in Buenos Aires, in the second week of January 1919, it included the only pogrom (massacre of Jews) that is recorded in America. Within the Tragic Week there was the only pogrom (massacre of Jews) of which there is record in the American continent. The pogrom had its epicenter in the Jewish quarter of Once. The pogrom was unleashed when Tragic Week was averaging and the upper-class civilians joined the repression. It was carried out by the Argentine Patriotic League, “the white guard”; synagogues burned. There were hundreds of deaths.

[ii] While prostitution in Argentina was dominated by Jews for many years., it was terminated by vehement protest from the Jewish community and government legislation.

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Bibliografía de David Viñas/David Viñas’ Bibliography

NOVELA/NOVEL

Cayó sobre su rostro (1955)

Los años despiadados (1956)

Un Dios cotidiano (1957)

Los dueños de la tierra (1958)

Dar la cara (1962)

En la semana trágica (1966)

Hombres de a caballo (1967)

Cosas concretas (1969)

Jauría (1971)

Cuerpo a cuerpo (1979)

Prontuario (1993)

Tartabul (2006)

La hermosa yegua

TEATRO/THEATER

Sarah Goldmann

Maniobras

Dorrego

Lisandro (1971)

Tupac-Amaru

Walsh y Gardel

ENSAYO/ESSAYS:

Literatura argentina y realidad política: de Sarmiento a Cortázar (1970)

De los montoneros a los anarquistas (1971)

Momentos de la novela en América Latina (1973)

Indios, ejército y fronteras (1982)

Los anarquistas en América Latina (1983)

Literatura argentina y política – De los jacobinos porteños a la bohemia anarquista (1995)

PREMIOS

Premio Guillermo Kraft (1957)

Premio Gerchunoff (1957)

Premio Nacional de Literatura (1962) y (1971)

Premio Casa de las Américas (1967)

Premio Nacional de Teatro (1972)

Premio Nacional de la Crítica

 

 

 

Las sinagogas de Ecuador, de Perú, Bolivia y Paraguay /The Synagogues of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay

Algunas sinagogas de Ecuador, de Perú, Bolivia y Paraguay/Some of the Synagogues of  Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia and Paraguay

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Ecuador

La comunidad judía ecuatoriana es un grupo homogéneo, un hecho que ha facilitado una gran organización comunal. La comunidad judía de Quito tiene su propio edificio, un hogar para ancianos y sinagogas que ofrecen servicios en Shabat y días festivos. Beit Chabad en Ecuador ofrece comida kosher.

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The Jewish population of Ecuador is approximately 600. The Ecuadorian Jewish community is a homogeneous group, a fact which has facilitated great communal organization. The Jewish community of Quito has its own building, a home for the aged, and a synagogue that holds services on Shabbat and holidays. Beit Chabad in Ecuador offers kosher food.

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Comunidad Judía del Ecuador -Quito

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Comunidad Judía del Ecuador – Interior

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Sinagoga Judía Sefardita – Quito

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Sinagoga de la Comunidad de Guayaquil 

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Perú

Hoy Perú es el hogar de aproximadamente 2.500 judíos, la mayoría de los cuales viven en Lima, la capital. Hay comunidades activas en Guayaquil e Iquitos.

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Today Peru is home to approximately 2,500 Jews, most of whom live in Lima, the capital. There are also active communities in Guayaquil and Iquitos.

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1870 Asociación de Beneficia y Culto – Lima

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1870 Asociación de Beneficia y Culto – Interior – Lima

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Sinagoga de San Isidro

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“Shavei Israel” – Lima

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Centro Cultural Sharon – Ashkenazi -Lima

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Templo de Iquitos – Amazonas

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Bolivia

La pequeña pero activa comunidad judía de Bolivia tiene alrededor de 400 miembros, la mayoría de los cuales viven en La Paz. También hay comunidades más pequeñas en Cochabamba y Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

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The small but active Jewish community of Bolivia has around 400 members, most of whom live in La Paz. There are also smaller communities in Cochabamba and Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

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Círculo Israelita de Bolivia – La Paz

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Sinagoga Ortodoxa – Cochabamba

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Paraguay

La comunidad judía de Paraguay es pequeña y comprende solo unas 1.000 personas. En gran parte tradicional, aunque no ortodoxa, la judería paraguaya es muy sionista y se concentra en Asunción, la capital.

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The Jewish community of Paraguay is small, comprising only some 1,000 people. Largely traditional, though not Orthodox, Paraguayan Jewry is highly Zionist and concentrated in Asunción, the capital.

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Sinagoga de la Unión Hebraica de Paraguay

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Tamara Tenenbaum –Filósofa judía-argentina/Argentine Jewish Philosopher — “El fin de amor: querer y coger”/”The Death of Love: Loving and Fucking” — fragmento/excerpt

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Tamara Tenenbaum

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Tamara Tenenbaum nació en Buenos Aires en 1989. Tiene una licenciatura en filosofía y trabaja como periodista para La Nación, La Agenda, Infobae y otros medios. Es profesora en la Universidad de Buenos Aires y en la Universidad Nacional de las Artes. En 2017, publicó Reconocimiento de terreno (Pánico el pánico), una colección de poesía autobiográfica. En ese mismo año, ella cocreó (con amigos y colegas Marina Yuszczuk y Emilia Erbetta) Rosa Iceberg, una editorial dedicada a libros de mujeres. En abril de 2019, publicó El fin del amor (Ariel), una colección de ensayos sobre el amor y la sexualidad en el siglo XXI. Su primer libro de cuentos, Nadie vive tan cerca de nadie, recibió el Concurso Ficciones y será publicado por Emecé.

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Tamara Tenenbaum was born in Buenos Aires in 1989. She has a BA in philosophy and works as a journalist for La Nación, La Agenda, Infobae, and other media. She teaches at the Universidad de Buenos Aires and the Universidad Nacional de las Artes. In 2017, she published Reconocimiento de terreno (Pánico el pánico), an autobiographical poetry collection. In that same year, she co-created (with friends and colleagues Marina Yuszczuk and Emilia Erbetta) Rosa Iceberg, a publishing house devoted to books by women. In April 2019, she published El fin del amor (Ariel), a collection of essays on love and sexuality in the twenty-first century. Her first book of short stories, Nadie vive tan cerca de nadie, was awarded the Concurso Ficciones and will be published by Emecé.

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Kindle

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De:  El fin de amor: Querer y coger, 2019.

Mi mamá, mis hermanas y yo nos criamos en una comunidad judía ortodoxa, lo que se conoce como ortodoxia moderna. En Buenos Aires se puede ver por la calle mucha gente de nuestro tipo: chicas que tienen la cabeza cubierta pero usan polleras de jean, varones que no usan sombrero grande ni tienen “rulitos” a los costados pero sí barba y kipá. Nací en 1989 en el Once y viví allí hasta los 23 años, cuando me mudé con una amiga. En términos metafísicos, por suerte que me fui antes, aunque en otro sentido, una no se va nunca. Los jasídicos de Nueva York con sus mujeres cubriéndoles la retaguardia me sorprenden, pero no tanto. Mi mamá, que es médica y sigue trabajando en el barrio, tiene pacientes así, más o menos así. Casi todas mis compañeras de la primaria están casadas y van por el segundo, tercero o cuarto hijo. Las compañeras de mis hermanas menores también.

En un documental que se llama One of Us dos hombres y una mujer de mi edad cuentan lo difícil que les resultó la comunidad jasídica a la que pertenecían, esa misma que vi en Nueva York. Yo la saqué bastante barata, pero mirando el documental en Netflix me sentí identificada, particularmente con dos motivos que se repetían en los relatos que, en realidad, son un poco lo mismo. El primero es la ignorancia más absoluta de lo que pasa en “el mundo real”. A veces cuesta explicar que, aunque una viva ahí, en una ciudad enorme en el medio de todos, en medio de cualquiera, incluso aunque tenga tele e Internet (yo tenía: los chicos del documental no), es como si viviera en otro planeta. Hasta las 12 años no solamente no había probado jamón; ni siquiera sabía cómo se veía, si parecía un chancho o un bife (nunca llegué a sospechar que era un fiambre: los judíos casi no tenemos, solo pastrón, así que es un concepto que no está muy a mano de nosotros), ni con qué se comía normalmente. A las empleadas domésticas se les dice shikse; es un término despectivo pero no quiere decir ni “negra” ni “esclava”; significa “no judía” (para un judío ortodoxo, esas son las únicas chicas no judías que se conoce). Tanto es así que una noche mi mamá se dio cuanta de que yo me moría de transgredir el shabat y jugar a ser normal le pidió a la chica que trabajaba en mi casa que me sumara a una salida al cine que ella ha armado con dos amigas (veo que al menos no fue tan racista ni tan clasista mi infancia, ahora que pienso en esta historia). Creo que vimos una película de Adam Sandler y de lo que estoy segurísimo es de que comimos pochoclo, porque nunca antes había probado pochoclo en el cine. Estaba fascinada con la intrepidez de Juana y sus amigas, la manera en que se movían entre las cosas, comían y charlaban y se subían a un colectivo y hablaban de un hombre o de otro.

Aunque la película me haya interesado menos que todo lo demás , el segundo motivo del documental que se repite también en mi vida es la importancia de la cultura en su sentido más amplia que se puede imaginar, desde las novelas de Cris Morena, un libro de Vargas Llosa que encontraba en la biblioteca del living o las entradas de sexualidad de la Enciclopedia británica, todo que te habla del mundo más allá de tu casa y de tu barrio te lo devorás con pasión; lo que habla de sexo, ante todo, sí, pero también de amistades, de plata, de trabajo, de casas, de ropa, de comida. Uno de los pibes cuenta en el documental que descubrir Wikipedia fue unos de los mejores momentos de su vida. Yo ya era un poco más grande que el chico del documental cuando Wikipedia se hizo conocida en Argentina, pero entendí perfectamente el vértigo de, de pronto, sentir que se te abría una secreta a todo eso de lo que hablan los demás, una ventana, una ventana en la que podés espiar lo que no entendiste de una conversación sin que nadie te mire, así no se dan cuenta de que no sabés qué es una morcilla o una tanga.

Decía que la saqué barata: en primer lugar, porque mi comunidad no era tan cerrada como la de los chicos de One of Us. En la escuela teníamos enseñanza oficial (aunque no educación sexual) y a casi todos mis amigos y a mí nos dejaban ver televisión e ir al cine. En mi casa además, la educación y la cultura eran muy importantes, una tradición askenazi, supongo: aunque mi mamá no era “muy del palo de arte”, le importaba llevarnos a museos y fomentarnos el hábito de la lectura, y no controlaba demasiado lo que leíamos. En algún sentido era un arma de doble filo. Algunos chicos tenían muy en claro que eso que veíamos en la ficción era un exotismo en relación a nuestra propia vida. “No es para nosotros”, decía una amiga de mi hermana sobre la vida que hacían las chicas de novelitas de Cris Morena, con mucha naturalidad y sin explicar por qué. Algunas nos veíamos seducidas por ese otro universo, que sucedía en barrios por los que pasábamos, frente a los shoppings que conocíamos, a la vez imposiblemente lejos. Por esos azares de la vida, terminé llegando ahí. Mi papá falleció cuando yo, que soy la mayor, tenía 5 años y, a medida que con mis hermanos fuimos creciendo, mi mamá nos empezó a permitir relajar las normas, puertas adentro de casa al menos, aunque manteniendo ciertas apariencias en el Once. Con los años abandonamos también eso. Supongo que no era sostener tantas reglas haciendo malabares con tres nenas tan chicas: no sé como nos hubieran entretenido sin encender la televisión en shabat cuando mi mamá hacia guardia todos los sábados.

Tampoco nadie tenía ganas de prohibirnos más cosas que era estrictamente necesario negarnos; yo no me daba cuenta pero los primeros años de viudez de mi mamá fueron emocional y económicamente. Para cuando empecé a entender algo ya estábamos mejor, en ambos sentidos, y con un pie entero afuera de la religión.

Aunque veníamos saliendo de a poco, yo fui pionera en la familia cuando le dije a mi mamá que quería ir a “un buen colegio”, de esos que te preparan bien para ir a la universidad, y ella accedió. En eso también tuve suerte; no necesité pelearme a muerte con nadie ni fugarme de mi casa para hacer una vida nueva y convertirme en otra persona. Fui la primera que probó el jamón, que tuvo amigos no judíos y que se compró una musculosa para usar en la calle, sin saquito ni nada. Tampoco fue todo risas: mi mamá se puso a llorar una vez que le dije que quería ir a un baile de egresados de Guadalupe, donde una compañera mía terminaba la primaria. “Yo entiendo que vayas a un colegio laico, pero ¿a bailar cumbia con los chicos de la parroquia?”, decía como en una parodia de ídishe mame, pero con tono melodramático de película italiana. A ese baile no fui, per terminó siendo mendos grave de lo que me pareció en ese momento.

Cuando llegué al nuevo colegio, entonces, me encontré con un abismo: era evidente que yo no conocía las reglas de nada. Había acumulado un cierto bagaje de conocimiento, creía yo, pero estaba basado enteramente en las ficciones que lograba consumir, y ahora empezaba a dudar de qué tanto me podría servir para manejarme en el mundo real: ¿desde qué edad había que decir que te dabas besos en la boca? ¿Qué tipo de interacción hay que sostener con los varones en la vida diaria? ¿A los varones se los saluda siempre con beso o sólo si los conocés? ¿El uso de minifaldas debe administrarse con cuidado o puedo usarlas todos los días? ¿Perder la virginidad antes del matrimonio es tan común como en las películas? Estas son preguntas que yo me hacía constantemente, de forma explícita, cada vez que me tocaba participar en una conversación o ir a una fiesta de cumpleaños de mis nuevas amigas o, sencillamente, cuando estaba sola en casas y tenía un rato para pensar y organizar mis ideas sobre el tema. Aclaro, por si no es obvio, que el mundo del que yo venía (del que yo vengo) todas estas cuestiones tenían una respuesta única. Los judíos ortodoxos tenemos reglas claras para todo: la comida, la ropa, el modo de conducirse con el sexo opuesto, incluso acerca de cómo administrar la menstruación. La mayoría están escritas en alguna parte de la Torá o del Talmud y, si existe alguna duda, se consulta con el rabino, que seguro tiene algún precedente como respuesta. En el mundo que yo empezaba a habitar, la clase media urbana del siglo XXI, no había libros sagrados; y, empecé a pensar, tal vez tampoco hubiera demasiadas reglas.

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From: The End of Love: To Love and to Fuck. 2019.

My mother, my sisters and I grew up in an orthodox Jewish community, in what is known as modern orthodoxy. In Buenos Aires, it is possible to see many people like us; girls who keep their heads covered but wear skirts made of jeans, men who don’t wear a large hat nor have “little rolls of hair” on the side of their head but a beard and a kipah, yes. I was born in Once in 1989, and I lived there until I was 23, when I moved in with a friend. In metaphysical terms, I fortunately left early, but in another sense, nobody ever leaves. The Chassidic people in New York with their women covering the rear guard for them, surprise me, but not that much. My mama, who is a doctor and continues to practice in the neighborhood, has patients like that, more or less like that. Almost all my girlfriends from primary school are married and are on their second, third or fourth child. The girlfriends of my younger sisters, too.

In a documentary called One of Us two men and a woman my age relate how difficult the Hassidic community to which they belonged, the same one I saw in New York. made it for them to leave,  I got out relatively easily, but watching the documentary on Netflix, I identified with what they were saying, particularly with two themes told in the stories that were sort of the same thing. The first is the absolute ignorance of what was happening in the “real world.” At times, it is difficult to explain how, although they live there, in an enormous city, in the midst of everyone, in the midst of whatever, even when they have a television or Internet (I did, the folks in the documentary didn’t), it is as if they lived on another planet. Until I was 12, not only had I never tasted ham; I didn’t even know what it looked like, if it resembled pork or a steak (I never realized that it was a type of cold cuts. We Jews hardly had them, only pastrami, so it isn’t a concept very familiar to us), or what you normally ate with it. The domestic employees were called shikses; it’s a disparaging term, but it doesn’t mean “Slav” or “Black”: it means “non-Jew” (for an orthodox Jew, they are the only non-Jewish girls that they know.) So much so, that one evening my mama realized that I was dying to break the shabbat and play at being normal, she asked the girl who worked in my house to add me on to a trip to the movies that she had arranged with two friends (I can see that at least my childhood wasn’t so racist or classist, now that I think about this story.) I believe that we saw a movie by Adam Sandler and what I am absolutely certain of is that we ate popcorn, because I had never before tasted popcorn at the movies. I was fascinated with the intrepidness of Juana and her friends, the manner in which they moved among things, ate and chatted and went up on the bus and spoke about one man or another.

Although the movie interested me less than everything else, the second theme of the documentary that was repeated in my life was the importance of culture in the broadest sense imaginable, from the novels of Chris Morena, a book by Vargas Llosa that I found in the living room library or the entries about sexuality in the Encyclopedia Britannica, everything that tells you about the world beyond home and your neighborhood, you devour passionately, that about sex, more than anything else, yes, but also of friendships, money and work, housing, clothing, food. One of the kids in the documentary tells how discovering Wikipedia was one of the best moments of his life. I was a little bit older than the boy in the documentary when Wikipedia became known in Argentina, but I understood perfectly the vertigo of, suddenly, feeling that a secret was made clear for you about what all the others were talking about, a window, a window through which you could spy on what you didn’t understand in a conversation without anyone seeing you, in that way, they didn’t realize that you didn’t know what a blood sausage or a thong is.

I said that I got out without much trouble: in the first case, because my community was not as closed as that of the kids in One of Us. In school, we followed the official curriculum (though not sex education), and almost all my friends and I were permitted to watch television and go to the movies. In my home, moreover, education and culture were very important, an Ashkenazi tradition, I suppose: although my mother wasn’t “a great fan of art,” it was important to her to take us to museums and foment in us the habit of reading, and she didn’t regulate too much what we read. In some way, it was a double-edged sword. Some kids understood very clearly that what we saw in fiction was an exotic oddity in relation to our own lives. “It’s not for us,” said  a friend of my sister about the life that girls had of the little novels by Cris Morena, very naturally and without explaining why. Some of us were seduced by this other universe, what was happening in the neighborhoods that we went through, in front of the shopping malls that we knew, though, at the same time impossibly distant. By one of those fateful events in life, I ended up getting there. My papa died when I, the oldest was 5,  and, while my sisters and I were growing up, my mama began to allow us to ease the rules, behind closed doors at home, at least, maintaining certain appearances in Once. As the years passed, we abandoned that too. I suppose that it wasn’t possible to sustain so many rules, juggling three little girls: I don’t how they could have understood not turning on the television on shabbat when my mama was on duty every Saturday. Neither did she wish to prohibit us more things than those that were strictly necessary to deny us; I didn’t understand that the first years of widowhood were emotionally and economically difficult for my mama. When I began to understand a bit, we were already better off, in both ways, and a big step away from the religion.

Although we continued leaving little by little, I was the pioneer in the family when I said to my mama that I wanted to go to a “good high school”, one of those that prepare you to go to the university, and she agreed. In this too I was lucky. I didn’t have to fight hammer and tongs with anyone or flee my home to make a new live and become a convert myself into another person. I was the first to taste ham, to have friends who weren’t Jewish and who bought a sleeveless shirt to wear in the street without a small jacket or anything else on top of it. It wasn’t all smiles; my mama began to cry when I told her that I wanted to go to a dance for the graduates of Guadalupe, where a friend of mine was completing elementary school. “I can understand that you go to a secular high school, but to dance the cumbia with kids from the parish”, she said in a parody of a Yiddishe mame, but with a melancholic tone of an Italian movie. I didn’t go to that dance, which turned out to be less serious that it appeared at that moment.

When I arrived at the new high school, then, I found myself with an abysm of knowledge: it was evident that I didn’t know the rules for anything. I had accumulated a certain baggage of knowledge, I believed, but it was entirely based on the fiction that I had succeeded in consuming, and now I began to doubt that all of that would serve me so well in managing in the real world: at what age was it necessary to say that you would kiss on the mouth? What type of interaction did you have to maintain with the boys on a daily basis? Do you greet all the boys with a kiss or only those that you know? Should you be careful about wearing your miniskirts or can you use them every day? Is it as common o lose your virginity before you are married as in the movies? These are questions that I asked myself constantly, explicitly, every time that it was my turn to participate in a conversation or a birthday party of my new girlfriends, or simply, when I was alone at home and had time to think and organize my thoughts on the subject. Let me clarify, if it is not already obvious, that in the world from which I came (from that which I come) all these questions had one and only answer. We orthodox Jews have clear rules for everything: food, clothing, how to behave with the opposite sex, even how to take care of menstruation. The majority of these rules are written in some part of the Torah or the Talmud, and if any doubt exists, you consult with the rabbi, who certainly has some precedent for his answer. In the world that I was beginning to inhabit, the urban middle class of the XXI century, there were no secret books, I began to think, perhaps there also weren’t too many rules either.

Translation by Stephen A. Sadow

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Otros libros de Tamara Tanenbaum/Other books by Tamara Tanenbaum

Las sinagogas de el Caribe y la América Central de habla español/The Synagogues of the Spanish-speaking Caribbean and Central America

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Algunas de las sinagogas/Some of the Synagogues

El Caribe/The Caribbean

El Caribe/ The Caribbean-Jewish Virtual Library

Puerto Rico

Today, Puerto Rico is home to approximately 1,500 Jews, the largest Jewish community in the Caribbean. Most Jews live in the capital San Juan which boasts three synagogues, a Jewish Community Center and a kosher grocery store. The island also is home to a Hebrew school, a Zionist youth club, and other Jewish organizations. The island’s Chabad center offers a kosher restaurant and catering, serving over 30,000 meals annually.

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Temple Beth Shalom – San Juan

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Temple Beth Shalom – Interior

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Congregación She are Zedek – Miramar

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Congragación Sha are Zedek Interior

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República Dominicana/Dominican Republic

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Centro Israelita de la República Dominicana

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Cuba

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Sinagoga Bet Shalom – La Habana

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Guatemala

 

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Sinagoaga Shaaarie Binyamin – Ciudad Guatemala

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Sociedad Israelita Maguen David 

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El Salvador

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Comunidad Israelita de San Salvador

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Costa Rica

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Centro Israelita de San José

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Centro Israelita -Interior

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Congregación Bnei Israel – San José

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Panamá

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Kol Shearith Israel – Ciudad Panamá

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Sinagoga Svet Achim  – Ciudad Panamá

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      Sinagoga del Colón

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Las sinagogas de Chile/ The Synagogues of Chile

Las sinagogas de Chile

A lo largo de todo Chile hay cerca de 18 mil judíos, y aquellos activos dentro de la comunidad rondan los 10 mil. Las distintas comunidades se organizan bajo la Comunidad Judía de Chile. Hay 6 comunidades conservadoras y 3 ortodoxas dentro de la comunidad, con alrededor 8 sinagogas. Hay también sinagogas progresistas y de Chabad.

Chile cuenta con 2 colegios hebreos. Uno es el Instituto Hebreo, con una población de cerca de 1,500 niños. Y otro colegio ortodoxo un poco más alejado de la ciudad capital.

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The Synagogues of Chile

Throughout Chile there are about 18 thousand Jews, and those active within the community are around 10,000. The different communities are organized under the Chilean Jewish Community. There are 6 conservative and 3 Orthodox communities within the community, with around 8 synagogues. There are also Reform and Chabad synagogues.

Chile has 2 Hebrew schools. One is the Hebrew Institute, with a population of about 1,500 children. And another Orthodox school a little further from the capital city.

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Algunas sinagogas de Chile/Some of the Synagogues of Chile

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Centro Israelita de Santiago

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Centro Israelita de Santiago Interior

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Mercaz Tefila -CIS – Santiago

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Sinagoga Moguen David – Santiago

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Sinagoga Maguen David Interior

 

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Gran y Vieja Sinagoga

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Gran Sinagoga – Interior

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Sinagoga Aish  HaTorá-  Interior -Santiago

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Beit Jabad de Chile -Santiago

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Sinagoga Bikur Jolim -Santiago

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Sociedad Israelita Max Nordau – Valparaíso

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Congregación “Angel Kreitman” Interior – Concepción

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Congregación Israelita de Temuco Interior -Temuco

 

 

 

Jacques Fux — Romancista brasileiro-judaico/Brazilian Jewish Novelist” — “Antiterapias”/ “Anti-Therapies” –fragmentos do romance/excerpts from the novel

Site

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Jacques Fux

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Jacques Fux é graduado em matemática e mestre em ciência da computação pela UFMG, doutor e pós-doutor em literatura pela UFMG, pela Universidade de Lille 3 (França) e pela Unicamp, além de pesquisador visitante na Universidade de Harvard. Sua tese de doutorado, versão do livro Literatura e Matemática: Jorge Luis Borges, Georges Perec e o OULIPO (Perspectiva, 2016), recebeu em 2011 o Prêmio CAPES de melhor tese de Letras e Linguística do Brasil e foi finalista do Prêmio APCA de 2016. Antiterapias (Scriptum, 2012), seu romance de estreia, venceu o Prêmio São Paulo de Literatura 2013 e o manuscrito de Brochadas: confissões sexuais de um jovem escritor (Rocco, 2015), recebeu Menção Honrosa no Prêmio Cidade de Belo Horizonte. Foi finalista do Prêmio Barco a Vapor 2016. Publicou ainda Meshugá: um romance sobre a loucura, que saiu pela prestigiosa Editora José Olympio, e recebeu o Prêmio Manaus de Literatura 2016, e Nobel (José Olympio, 2018) em que realiza o sonho de todo escritor: ser laureado com um Nobel de Literatura.

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Jacques Fux has a degree in mathematics and a master’s in computer science from UFMG, a doctor and a post-doctor in literature from UFMG, the University of Lille 3 (France) and Unicamp, as well as a visiting researcher at Harvard University. His doctoral thesis, version of the book Literature and Mathematics: Jorge Luis Borges, Georges Perec and OULIPO (Perspectiva, 2016), received in 2011 the CAPES Award for the best thesis in Letters and Linguistics in Brazil and was a finalist in the 2016 APCA Award. Antiterapias (Scriptum, 2012), his debut novel, won the São Paulo Literature Award 2013 and the manuscript of Brochadas: sexual confessions of a young writer (Rocco, 2015), received an Honorable Mention in the Belo Horizonte City Award. He was a finalist in the Barco a Vapor Award 2016. He also published Meshugá: a novel about madness, published by the prestigious Editora José Olympio, and received the Manaus Literature Award 2016, and the Nobel Prize (José Olympio, 2018) in which he fulfills the dream of every writer: be awarded a Nobel Prize for Literature.

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Jacques Fux. Antiterapias. 2 ed. Belo Horizonte: Scriptum, 2014, 27-29, 113-114.

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Antiterapias

os fragmentos

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Então, se era para estudar, era para estudar. E se estava numa escola judaica atinha que rezar também. Não havia muito que questionar. Era para chegar cedo, rezar em hebraico—para não entender bem aquelas letras e músicas—e depois ir a sala de aula. Eu gostava das minhas aulas sobre a Torá, sobre o judaísmo e das aulas de hebraico. Ainda não era muito bom em hebraico. Ainda não sabia que poderia criar um Golem pela mera manipulação das letras hebraicas. Se soubesse, teria criado o mesmo Golem de Praga.O Golem de Bashevis Singer. Este Frankenstein judaico muito teria me ajudava a conquistar o amor de Silvinha e a repelir o profeta às avessas que sempre me perseguia. Mas eu desconhecia as relações entre letras e números. Não poderia imaginar (e v meus professores poderiam ensinar) as relações entre o Aleph, a matemática e um mundo literário completamente novo. Oh God, I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a King of infinite space. Também não tinha batido minha cabeça na escada para poder vislumbar a pequena esfera furta-cor, de quase intolerável fulgor, que me revelaria os segredos do universo. Mas estava suficientemente feliz com as explicações simplórias da vida. Da origem, da criação e da justiça divina. Era tudo muito simples. Deus me criou à sua imagem e semelhança. Eu era ainda mais parecido com Ele, segundo mamãe e papai. Criou o mundo e os animais. A luz da escuridão. E tudo isso em seis dias. E descansou no shabat. Estava tudo lá escrito. Pelo menos me diziam, já que não sabia muito bem ler hebraico, sobretudo sem as vogais. Ah, claro, havia dez mandamentos. O meu manual de conduta moral e ética já estava pronto. Nem precisava questionar nada. Sim, Ele era o senhor meu Deus e eu deveria acreditar nisso. Não deveria matar. Não poderia roubar. Não praticaria o adultério. Não desejaria a mulher do próximo. Não daria falso testemunho. Não criaria imagens. Honraria meu pai e mãe (claro e sempre!). Lembraria o shabat (o que tinha o Dror e era bom). Não pediria ajuda a Deus em vão. Ufa, eram tantos nãos. Mais como era bom, fácil e simples! Não tinha muito que questionar. Era seguir e ser feliz. Acredito que hoje alguns mandamentos, mudaram. Todos nós desejamos a mulher do próximo, desde que esse próximo não esteja ou seja tão próximo assim.

Ou que a mulher do próximo esteja numa revista, num site pornô o mesmo atravessando a rua. Já roubar, bem, roubar pequenas coisinhas na Machiné não era tão grave assim. Éramos todos judeus, numa, numa excursão de judeus, e estávamos tentando perpetuar nossa espécie. Já os outros mandamentos, esses tento cumprir.

Tudo corria muito bem, sum nenhuma questão mais polêmica, até que a nossa professora resolveu nos explicar sobre Darwin. A evolução das espécies. Que coisa complicada! As explicações não se fechavam muito bem. O sistema não era completo, consistente e coerente. Os teoremas da incompletude de Gödel já poderiam ser vislumbrados logo na Bíblia. Em 1925, outro jovem brilhante judeu chamado Gödel demonstrou que qualquer sistema formal capaz de fazer aritmética não é capaz de provar sus própria consistência. E além disso, esses sistemas são incompletos. Ora, se existe um Código da Bíblia e se acreditarmos na Cabala, o sistema bíblico torna-se incompleto, como já era de esperar. Assim poderíamos provar algo inconsistente: que Deus existe o que Deus não existe. Ficção? Com Darwin, a teoria do mundo seria diferente daquela contada em seis dias. Outras histórias bíblicas também perderiam o sentido. A seleção natural seria fruto da Arca de Noé? Noé os selecionou para perpetuar as espécies? Tudo muito confuso. E agora, José, em que acreditar? A festa acabou? A casa caiu? A Torá ruiu? E todas as histórias, parábolas, contos, civilizações que as versões de mamãe tinham me ensinado na escola, era tudo inventado? Toda essa história deveria contada como o Ilíada? Moisés seria como Ulisses? Não haveria compromisso com a verdade num livro escrito com inspiração divina? A divindade então era literária? Poesia? Besteira? Malditos Nazistas. O tempo se bifurca perpetuamente para inumeráveis futuros. Nesse encontro fomos inimigos. Todas essas histórias bíblicas poderiam estar num livro de seres imaginários? Fui ludibriando, novamente, pelo Dibouk? Se eu descobrisse quem era o mentiroso, arrenegado, anhangão, Pé-de-Pato. O -que-nunca-se-ri que falseou essa história, eu o colocaria em algum dos círculos do inferno dantesco. Fosse ele Darwin, fosse ele Deus! E eu tinha que descobrir. Tinha que revelar para o mundo o segredo. O meu fantasioso e literário segredo. Mas é lógico que o único caminho que conhecia era o de estudo.

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As religiões voltadas todas para Deus e para o arrependimento. Para o arrependimento pelas faltas com Deus. Eu, que fui educado desde muito pequeno com os valores judaicos, não os associava à religião. A religião não ensinava a forma como deveríamos tratar as pessoas, o meio ambiente, nós mesmos. Ensinava esse temor divino. Esse medo e as

eternas oferendas que deveríamos fazer. O Deus católico era extremamente bondoso, mas era necessário extremamente receptivo a tudo o que ele pregava. Ou que pregavam por ele. O Deus judeu era um Deus justo. Justiça podia simbolizar rigor. Punição, Adoração. E eu, que gostava o gosto dos valores humanos, do respeito, admirava os valores judaicos. Não a religião, mas sua cultura milenar. Se dependêssemos dos ortodoxos judeus, haveria um colapso econômico. Famílias imensas existiriam. Existem. Todos esperando o tal do Mashiach, chegar. Nada de trabalhar. Só rezar. Nem todos poderiam ser rabinos. E sem trabalho, com alta taxa de natalidade, a economia ruiria. Lógico que há exceções. Em Nova Iorque, muitos ortodoxos trabalham demais. Em todos os lugares também.

Mas há um grupo de ultraortodoxos em Israel e nos EUA que não trabalha. Só rezar. Só espera o Mashiach. Não vai o exército. Não está de acordo com a existência do Estado Judeu. Aguarda. Alguns de elos até já encontraram o Amadinejah em um congresso revisionista de Shoah. E não fazem nada para contribuir, além de terem mais filhos. Israel assegura sua existência. Eles não. Foi um de esses que matou Isaac Rabin. O que tentou verdadeiramente fazer a paz. O que sonhou. Aquele que apertou a mão a Arafat num gesto inédito. Impensável na época. Surreal. Mas que foi morto por um extremista judeu. É interessante pensar que consta nos dez mandamentos um preceito explícito o não matarás. Na verdade, é um mandamento que diz não assassinarás. Assassinar é matar alguém inocente. Matar se direciona a alguém culpado, segundo a interpretação dessa Lei. Assim alguns ortodoxos condenaram á morte pelo acordo com Arafat. Por não desejar expandir o território judeu em busca de Israel Gdolá. A Israel bíblica. Segundo eles, Rabin foi morto, não assassinado. No era um inocente. Histórias de vida real. Mas, também, se a perpetuação do judaísmo dependesse somete dos liberais, alguns valores seriam perdidos. Muitos. Purim vivaria um Carnaval? A Rainha Ester seria uma Rainha de Bateria? Poderíamos fazer uma pequenina refeição no Yom Kipur? E alguns valores, crenças, marcos e fatos seriam mudados. Evolução natural? Não sé, mas acho que, existindo somete os liberais, teríamos outra religião. Com outra visão. Muitas vezes, boa. Muitas vezes, falha e incompleta. E eu não sabia muito bem em quem acreditar, em que acreditar nem por acreditar. Creio, assim, necessário esse duelo entre os religiosos, os liberais e os marginais, como eu, que não concordam com nenhum dos lados. Ou que concordam com os dos lados.

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Rabin, Clinton, Arafat

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Antitherapies

excerpts

So, if it was to be studying, it was to be studying. And if it was in a Jewish school, it was yet to pray also. There was never much to question. It was to arrive early, to pray in Hebrew—to not understand well those letters and tunes—and then go to the classroom. I enjoyed my classes about Torah, Judaism and the Hebrew classes. Though I not was very good in Hebrew. Though I didn’t know that you could create a Golem by the mere manipulation of Hebrew letters. If I knew, I would have created the same Golem of Prague. The Golem de Bashevis Singer. This Jewish Frankenstein would have helped me a lot in conquering Silvinha’s love and to have the prophet chase away that craziness that always pursues me. But didn’t know the relationships between letters and numbers. I couldn’t imagine (and not even my teacher could teach) the relation between the Aleph, to mathematics and a completely new literary world. O God I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space. Moreover, I have never beaten my head against wall so I could have glimpse at a small iridescent sphere, of an almost intolerable brilliance, that would reveal to me the secrets of the universe. But I was sufficiently happy with simple explanations about life. Of the Beginning, the Creation and Divine Justice. It was all very simple. God created me in his image and resemblance. I was therefore very similar to Him, according to mother and father. He created the world and the animals He created the world and the animals. Light from darkness. And all this in six days. And He rested on Shabbat. It was all written down. At least they told me so, as I didn’t know how to read Hebrew very well, especially without the vowels. Oh, of course, there were ten commandments. My manual of moral conduct and ethics already was ready.

It wasn’t necessary to question anything. Yes, He, the Lord, my God and I should believe this. Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not desire your neighbor’s wife. Thou shalt not give false testimony. Thou shalt not create graven images. Honor your father and your mother (Most certainly and forever!) Remember the Sabbath and keep it holy (or do what Dror did and that was good enough. Don’t take God’s name in vain. Yikes! There were so many Shalt Nots. But they were good, easy and simple. There was never much to question. Follow and be happy. I believe that today some commandments have changed. We all want our neighbor’s wife, since that wife is or is not necessarily a neighbor. Or that your neighbor’s wife is in some magazine, some porno site or even crossing the street. As for stealing, stealing little things from the Macjané, the vending machine, wasn’t so serious either. We were all Jews, in a group of Jews, and we were tempted to perpetuate our species. As for the other commandments, those I try to follow.

Everything was just fine, without any other polemical questions, until our teacher decided to Darwin to us. The Evolution of the Species. What a complicated business! The explanations don’t fit very well. The system wasn’t complete, consistent or coherent. The theory of incompletion of Gödel could then be seen in the Bible. In 1925, another brilliant young Jew named Gödel demonstrated that any system that was capable of being proven mathematically, was not capable of proving its own reality. And because of this, those systems were incomplete. Now, if there exists a Biblical Code, and if we believe in the Kabbalah, the Biblical system becomes incomplete: that God exists or that God doesn’t exist. Fiction? With Darwin, a theory of the world would be different from that told in six days. Other Biblical stories would also not make sense. Natural selection would be the result of Noah’s Ark? Noah selected them to perpetuate the species? Everything is very confusing. And now, Joseph, who to believe? The party is over? The house falls? The Torah collapses? And were all the tales, parables, stories, civilizations, songs that had been taught in school all invented? All of that history should be told like the Iliad? Moses would be like Ulises? There couldn’t be compromise with the truth of a book written with divine inspiration? The Divinity, then, was literature? Poetry? Nonsense?  Damn Nazis. Time perpetually divides into innumerable futures. At that meeting we were enemies.  All those Biblical stories could be found in a book of imaginary beings. I was fooled once again by the Dibbuk? If I were to discover who was the liar, the cursed, the devil, the faker. Or, that scoffer who falsified that story, I would put him into the circles of Dante’s Inferno. Was it Darwin? Was it God? And I had to discover which.

I had to reveal the secret to the world. My fantastic and literary secret. But, logically, the only path that I knew was studying. I was looking for everything that I could find. And Astrophysics wasn’t sufficient to prove Darwin’s or God’s fallacy, at least so I believed. And I had to understand all that Jewish or scientific nonsense at six years old.

I had to reveal the secret to the world. My fantastic and literary secret. But, logically, the only path that I knew was studying. I was looking for everything that I could find. And Astrophysics wasn’t sufficient to prove Darwin’s or God’s fallacy, at least so I believed. And I had to understand all that Jewish or scientific nonsense at six years old.

***

The religions all returned to God and for repentance. For repentance for the failings with God. I, who was educated since I was very small with Jewish values, not those associated with religion. Religion didn’t teach the way in which we ought to treat people, the environment, ourselves. I taught fear of the divine. That fear and  the eternal sacrifices that we ought to make. The Catholic God was extremely generous, but it was necessary to be very accepting of everything that He preached or that they preached for him. The Jewish God was a just God. Justice could symbolize rigor. Punishment. Adoration. And I, who liked or like human values, admired Jewish values, out of respect, I admired Jewish values. Not the religion, but its millennial culture. If we were to depend on the orthodox Jews, there would be and economic collapse. Immense families existed, exist. All waiting for such a Mashiach to arrive. Nothing about working. No working. Just prayer Not all of them could be rabbis. And without work, with a high birth, the economy collapsed. Of course, there were exceptions. In New York, many orthodox worked too much. In every other place, too.

But there was a group of ultra-orthodox in Israel and in the United States who didn’t work. Only prayer. Only waiting for the Meshiach to arrive. Didn’t go into the army. Didn’t agree with the existence of the State of Israel.  Wait. Some of them had even met with Ahmadinejab in a revisionist congress dealing with the Shoah. And they didn’t do anything to contribute, other than having more children. Israel assures their existence. They don’t. It was one of those who killed Isaac Rabin. He who truly tried to make peace. Or so he dreamt.

The one who offered his had to Arafat in an unheard-of gesture. Unthinkable in that period. Surreal. But who was killed by a Jewish extremist. It is interesting to think that the Ten Commandments contains an explicit precept that thou shalt not kill. In fact, there is a commandment that says assassinate.  Assassinate or kill someone innocent. To kill is used with someone guilty, according to the interpretation of that Law. So, some orthodox condemned to death for the agreement with Arafat. For not wanting to expand the Jewish territory in search of Israel Gadolà, Greater Israel. The Biblical Israel. According to them, Rabin was killed, not assassinated. He wasn’t an innocent. Stories of real life. But, moreover, if the perpetuation of Judaism were to depend on the liberals, some values would be lost. Many. Purim become a Carnival. Queen Esther would be a Queen of Drums. Would we be able to make a slight reference to Yom Kippur? And some values, beliefs, references and facts would be changed. Natural evolution? I don’t know, but I think that, with only the liberals existing, we would have a different religion. With another vision. Often good. Often faulting and incomplete. And I don’t know really know in which to believe or why to believe. I believe it to be necessary, therefore, this duel between the religious, the liberals and the marginalized. Like me, who doesn’t agree with either of the two sides. Or who agrees with both sides.

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Rabin, Clinton, Arafat

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Translation from the Portuguese by Stephen A. Sadow

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Livros por Jacques Fux/Books by Jacques Fux

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Mario Szichman (1945-1918) Novelista y periodista judío-argentino-venezolano-norteamericano/Argentine Venezuelan American Novelist and Journalist — “Los judíos de la mar dulce”/ “The Jews of the Fresh-Water Sea”– Fragmento/Excerpt

 

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Mario Szichman

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Mario Szichman nació en Buenos Aires en 1945, llegó a Caracas en 1967. Regresó a su ciudad natal en  1971 y, en  1975, volvió a Venezuela para quedarse por cinco años más. Se enamoró de Venezuela y su  compromiso con el país estuvo vivo su muerte. En 1980, tras ganar el Premio de Literatura Ediciones del Norte de New Hampshire, Estados Unidos, por su novela  A las 20:25 la señora entró en la inmortalidad, viajó a Estados Unidos, junto con su esposa  Laura Corbalán. Se residenciaron en Nueva York, allí trabajó para la Associated Press y como corresponsal del periódico Tal Cual.  Su obra: sus novelas históricas, seis de ellas reunidas en dos series: “La trilogía del mar dulce” formada por  La verdadera crónica falsaLos judíos del Mar Dulce A las 20:25 la señora entró en la inmortalidad, novelas que relatan las peripecias de una familia judía que trata de reinventarse a fin de ser aceptada en la sociedad argentina y  “La trilogía de la patria boba”, conformada por Los Papeles de Miranda, Las dos muertes del general Simón Bolívar Los años de la guerra a muerte, novelas que narran las peripecias de los próceres de la independencia venezolana.  Luego escribió La región vacía, sobre los atentados a las torres gemelas, cuya trama tiene como soporte una serie de crónicas que estuvo escribiendo a partir de los  acontecimientos ocurridos el 9 de septiembre de 2001.

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Mario Szichman was born in Buenos Aires in 1945, arrived in Caracas in 1967. He returned to his hometown in 1971 and, in 1975, returned to Venezuela to stay for five more years. He fell in love with Venezuela and his commitment to the country was alive his death. In 1980, after winning the Northern New Hampshire Editions Literature Prize, United States, for her novel At 20:25 the lady entered immortality, traveled to the United States, along with his wife Laura Corbalán. They resided in New York, where he worked for the Associated Press and as a correspondent for the newspaper Tal Cual. Her work: her historical novels, six of them brought together in two series: “The Sweet Sea Trilogy” formed by The True False Chronicle, The Jews of the Sweet Sea and At 20:25 the lady entered into immortality, novels that relate the vicissitudes of a Jewish family that tries to reinvent itself in order to be accepted in Argentine society and “The trilogy of the silly homeland”, made up of Los Papeles de Miranda, The two deaths of General Simón Bolívar and The years of the war a death, novels that narrate the adventures of the heroes of Venezuelan independence. Then he wrote The Empty Region, about the attacks on the Twin Towers, whose plot is supported by a series of chronicles that he was writing based on the events of September 9, 2001.

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               “Los judíos de la mar dulce”                  un fragmento

        El primer día de navegación de los Pechof vieron la película titulada “Argentina. Tierra de Promisión”. La pantalla había sido dividida en cuatro partes, como un escudo de armas, y se veían trigales, vacas de perfil, barcos filmados desde abajo para que sus proas fueran vertiginosas, y una familia compuesta  por madre, hijo, hija y perrito juguetón, mirando un sol radiante.

Los cuatro eran gente lindo, y alegre, y tenían la misma cara. La diferencia entre el hijo y el padre se debía al pelo pintado de gris al pelo pintado de  blanco y las arrugas sonrientes en el entrecejo y en las comisuras de los labios.

En el país que habían preparado a gilada inmigrante, no había indios ni flechas envenenadas, ni selvas llenas de tigres y caimanes, ni mugre, ni casas viejas, ni Guardias Blancas, ni miserables, petisos, gordos, pájaros , of antisemitismo. Ese mundo tenía la tersura satinada de las páginas de “El Hogar”, la guita crecía en los árboles, y los inmigrantes se hacían domadores extraordinarios,  ante los ojos primero burlones y luego asombrados de criollos que los invitaban a tomar un matecito con “Venga, paisano, se lo ha ganado en buena ley”. Todos subían en el escalafón y con el pasado borrado por la falta de antecedentes, un soldado se convertía en mariscal, lo albañiles en inyenieri y las punguitas en ladrones de guante blanco. En esa Argentina imaginaría la gente que hablaba de tú, los burros se llaman jumentos. Los limosas eran óbolos, los pobres usaban ropas remendadas pero pulcras, los grandes hombres nacían en humilde cuna, los padres se la pasan llevando a sus hijos a los desfiles para emocionarse al paso de los granaderos, nuestro amigo el policía se dedicaba a cruzar viejecitas, los niños hablaban en difícil, los sociedades de los fifís eran beneméritas instituciones, las distinguidas damas guardaban cama, los torneos de canasta tenían siempre lúcidos contornos y la gente se moría de mentira.

***

Los Pechof viajaron primero hacia el puro desierto amarillo y reconstruyeron el rompecabezas de un pasado del que querían adueñarse para liquidar el desarraigo. Se pusieron en la línea de partida del año mil ochocientos diez y salieron por devorarse los años que los separaron de los goim, de sus pitos intactos, de su genealogía perpetuada en retratos de óleo de Pueyrredón, Pellegrini o Morel; de sus generaciones de parientes generales, jueces o diputados, de sus abuelas duras, de facciones angulosas que se enfrentan a las hordas unitarios o federales, de ese idioma que ya había sido manoseado por antepasados en cuarta o quinta generación, y les había sido donado junto con los gestos tranquilos y despectivos del que se siente dueño del poder, tratando de añadir a esa casta de tipos grandotes, corajudos, vergalargas, que extendían las fronteras, o se la pasaban bien en París de pura joda, ya victoriosos, ya desplazados, pero siempre dueños de su tierra; el tímido recuerdo de un bisabuelo que se perdía en la memoria apenas subía a un barco para irse a Palestina llevando como único tesoro, unos tfilin escritos por un discípulo de Rashi, y unos antepasados de barba larga, trencitas en los sienes, shlapques redondo y nariz ganchuda, que buscaban con desesperación cualquier tipo de barba rubia y ojos azules para convertirlo en el meyiaj (meísas).

Tuvieron que apoderarse de una historia ajena, llena de mainzes raros. Los héroes se achicaban cuando terminaba la guerra de independencia y se convertían en caudillos sedientos de sangre. Los ejércitos libertadores que habían mezclado su banderas en la lucha contra el godo, recogían sus trofeos y sus muertos, y se iban a sus países a formar montoneras anárquicas. La gloria era reemplazada por la ambición y el renunciamiento por apetitos inconfesables. Los guerreros redujeron sus estatura y arruinaron sus perfiles, bajándose del caballo donde inmortalizaban sus proclamas y cubriéndose de barbas amenazantes. Hasta el tiempo se modificaba, y el cruce de los Andes ocupaba en los libros de historia el mismo espacio que el gobierno de Rosas.

Los Pechof tomaron partido por el bando de los vencedores y siguieron la línea Mayo-Caseros, terminando hechos unos antiperonistas que invitaban al almirante Rojas a las fiestas de la Daia.

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[1} Rîo de la Plata

[2] Dictador of Argentina, por 17 años..

[3]  In Argentine political history: the Revolution of May, 1810 and the Battle of Caseros in 1853, when Rosas was defeated inaugurated the modern Argentine nation, according to the conservative and neo-liberal point of view. That is not accepted by the popular sectors.

[4] Almirante Rojas, vice-presidente de la golpe militar que derrocô a Perón en 1955 a el más sangriante de los que intervinieron of the military coup, autor de muchos fusilamientos de peronistas.

[5] Daia, el liderazgo de la comunidad judîa que se juntó con los anti-peronistas that en aquel entoincs. Dicho con ironîa para señalar el “ambiente” de la novela–esos judîos imigrantes como los Petchof que quería sre–medio cristiano y asimilado, igual a otros argentinos y aceptados por los que mandan.

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“The Jews of the Fresh-Water Sea” (1)

fragmento

The first day on board, the Pechoff family saw the movie, “Argentina. Promised Land.” The screen had been divided in four parts, like a coat of arms, and showed wheat fields, cows in profile, ships filled from below so that their prow were dizzying and a family composed to mother, son, daughter and playful little dog, looking a radiant sun.

The four were good happy people, and they the same face. The difference between the son and the father  depended on the hair dyed grey or hair dyed white and the smiling wrinkles on the forehead and the corners of the lips.

In the country that had provided the easily-fooled immigrant, there were no Indians or poisoned arrows, or jungles full of tigers and crocodiles or filth or miserable people o small guys, fat guys or anti-Semitism. That world had the satiny smoothness of the pages of the middle-class “Home Journal,” the dough grew on trees, and the immigrants became excellent buckaroos, before the eyes of the at first  scoffing and then amazed eyes of the locals who invited them later on to try to take a bit of mate with a “Come on over, “paisano,” my friend, you’ve truly earned it.” Everyone rose in social standing and with the past erased along with its lack of precedents , a soldier became a marshal, the bricklayers in “inyenieri,” engineers and, the pickpockets in white gloved criminals. In the imaginary Argentina, people spoke to “you, friend,” the burros are called donkeys. The alms were donations, the poor wore mended but beautiful clothing, the great men were born in humble cradles, the fathers spent their time bringing their children to parades to excite them with the passing of grenadiers, our friend the policeman dedicated themselves to helping little old ladies cross the street, the children spoke with tricky words, the societies of filthy rich were meritorious institutions, the distinguished ladies kept to bed, the canasta tournaments were always fairly played, and the peopled died of lying.

***

The Pechofs traveled first toward the pure yellow desert and reconstructed the jigsaw puzzle of a past of which they wanted to take hold of to sort out their position in it. The aligned themselves with the party of 1810 and set out to devour the years that separated them from the goyim, from their intact pricks, of their genealogy of oil portraits of Pueyrredón, Pellegrini or Morel, of generations of relatives who were generals, judges or deputies, of their tough grandmothers, of angular features that confront the Unitarian or Federalist hordes,[1]of that language that had been embellished by ancestors of the fourth or fifth generation, which they had been given together with serene and derogatory gestures  of those who feel to be the owners of power, trying to add to this caste of huge, valiant, big-dicked, who extended the frontiers or who enjoyed themselves in Paris, partying all the time, already victorious, already supplanted, but always owners of their land; the timid recollection of a great-grandfather that was being lost in memory as soon as they went on to a ship to go to Palestine, carrying as his only treasure, son “tefillim” phylacteries written by a disciple of Rashi, and some ancestors with long beards, little curls on their temples, rounded black hats and very hooked noses, who desperately looked for any sort of blond beard and blue eyes to convert him into “meyiah,” the Messiah.

They had to take on a foreign history, full of “metzias,” strange stories. The heroes shrank when the War of Independence ended and they became blood-thirsty caudillos. The armies of liberation that had mixed their flags during the fight against the Spanish, collected their trophies and their dead and went on to form anarchical gangs. Glory was replaced by ambition and sacrifice for uncontrollable appetites. The warriors reduced their stature and ruined their profiles, dismounting their horses where they immortalized their proclamations and covering themselves with threatening beards. Even time was modified, the crossing of the Andes occupied in the history books the same space as the government of Rosas.[2]

The Pechofs took the side of the winners and followed the line Mayo-Caseres,[3] ending up as anti-Peronists who invited Admiral Rojas[4] to the parties hosted by the DAIA.[5]

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 [1} Rîo de la Plata

[2] Dictator of Argentina, for 17 years.

[3] In Argentine political history: the Revolution of May, 1810 and the Battle of Caseros in 1853, when Rosas was defeated inaugurated the modern Argentine nation, according to the conservative and neo-liberal point of view. It is not accepted by the popular sectors.

[4] Admiral Rojas, vice-president of the military coup that overthrew Perôn in 1955 and the most bloody of the military who intervened also author of the execution of many Peronists

[5] DAIA, the official Jewish Community leadership that joined the anti-Peronsit forces at that time. Said with irony to signal the “atmosphere” of the novel—those immigrant Jews like the Pechofs wanted to be—half Christian and assimilated, equal to other Argentines,accepted by those who lead.

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Mario Szichman

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Unos libros de Mario Szichman/Some of Mario Szichman’s Books

Elisa Lerner — Escritora de ficción, dramaturga y cronista judío-venezolana/ Elisa Lerner– Venezuelan Jewish Fiction Writer, Playwright and Columnist — “La mujer venezolana”/”The Women of Venezuela”

 

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Elisa Lerner

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Elisa Lerner es hija de inmigrantes judíos de Europa del Este que se establecieron en Valencia, Venezuela, a principios de la década de 1930. Después de la muerte de Juan Vicente Gómez, la familia se mudó a Caracas. A pesar de estudiar leyes, la verdadera pasión de Lerner era la literatura, y luego escribió obras de teatro, ensayos, ficción corta y, una novela (De muerte lenta, 2006). En 2000, Lerner ganó el Premio Nacional de Literatura en Venezuela. Elisa Lerner es conocida por sus comentarios mordaces sobre Venezuela post-Pérez-Jiménez de maneras implacables. Sus comienzos se dieron en el grupo literario “Sardio” junto a conocidos escritores nuestros como Adriano González, Salvador Garmendia o Guillermo Sucre. Además de escribir obras de teatro, Lerner ha trabajado como columnista de un periódico, como personalidad de la televisión. En España,  su cargo fue el de consejero cultural.. Los personajes de Lerner son casi todas mujeres. A menudo, su drama explora cómo las mujeres no se cumplen sexualmente, emocionalmente e intelectualmente porque están limitadas por los roles y comportamientos que la sociedad patriarcal les impone. Temáticamente, a Lerner también le preocupa comentar sobre la Venezuela posterior a la dictadura y las formas en que la cultura pop y la creación de imágenes, así como el consumismo, actúan sobre la conciencia venezolana. La cuestión de la memoria y la identidad impregna el trabajo de Lerner. El estilo de Elisa Lerner es altamente satírico y sus diálogos se basan en observaciones sobre la vida cotidiana en períodos históricos particulares, con múltiples referencias a la cultura popular.

Adaptado de: http://www.outofthewings.org/db/author/elisa-lerner.html

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Elisa Lerner is the daughter of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe who settled in Valencia, Venezuela, in the early 1930s.  After the death of Juan Vicente Gómez, the family moved to Caracas. Despite studying law, Lerner’s true passion was literature and she went on to write plays, essays, short fiction and, more recently, a novel (De muerte lenta, 2006). In 2000 Lerner won the Premio Nacional de Literatura in Venezuela. Elisa Lerner is known for her biting commentary on post-Pérez-Jiménez Venezuela in unforgiving ways.  As well as writing plays, Lerner has worked as a newspaper columnist, as a television personality.  In Spain, her position was as cultural advisor,  Her literary beginnings were in a group called “Sardio” with well-known Venezuelan writers such as Adriano González, Salvador Garmendia o Guillermo Sucre. Lerner’s characters are almost all women.  Often her drama explores how women are unfulfilled sexually, emotionally and intellectually because they are constrained by the roles and behaviours which patriarchal society imposes on them.  Thematically, Lerner is also concerned to comment on post-dictatorship Venezuela and the ways in which pop culture and image-making, as well as consumerism, act on the Venezuelan consciousness.  The question of memory and identity pervades Lerner’s work. Elisa Lerner’s style is highly satirical and her dialogues draw on observations about everyday life in particular historical periods, with multiple references to popular culture.

Adapted from: http://www.outofthewings.org/db/author/elisa-lerner.html

Obra/Works de Elisa Lerner

Teatro

  • En el vasto silencio de Manhattan (1961, teatro)
  • Vida con mamá (1976, teatro)
  • Teatro (2004, teatro reunido)

Ensayo

  • Una sonrisa detrás de la metáfora (1969, ensayo)
  • Yo amo a Columbo (1979, ensayos)

Crónicas

  • Carriel número cinco. (Un homenaje al costumbrismo) (1983, crónicas)
  • Crónicas ginecológicas (1984, crónicas)
  • Carriel para la fiesta (1997, crónicas)
  • Así que pasen cien años (2016, crónicas reunidas)

Novelas y relatos

  • En el entretanto (2000, relatos)
  • Homenaje a la estrella (2002, relatos)
  • De muerte lenta (2006, novela)
  • La señorita que amaba por teléfono (2016, novela)
  • Homenaje a la estrella (cuentos) Segunda edición (2019, El Taller Blanco Ediciones Bogotá)

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El país odontológicoThe Dental Country (1966)

«Yo no me acerqué al teatro, yo estaba dentro del teatro. Mi familia fue un poco como la familia Barrymore. Aunque te parezca hiperbólica. Pero fíjate, mi padre cantaba en la sinagoga. El rito judío es un rito dramático, gravemente teatral por lo conmovedor y arcaico. Pienso, a veces, muy pícaramente, que en mi padre, el apego a la sinagoga, era una rutina teatral, un acercamiento al canto.”

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“I didn’t approach the theater, I was in the theater. My family was a bit like the Barrymore family, although, that may seem hyperbolic to you. But, note, my father sang in the synagogue, The Jewish rite is a dramatic rite, gravely theatrical for being moving and archaic. I think that, at times, very slyly, for in my father, the most important part of the synagogue was a theatrical rhythm, an approach to singing.”

Citada de Alicia Perdomo H./Quoted from Alicia Perdoma H.

“Aunque empecé a escribir muy joven, es ahora cuando estoy entendiendo mejor al venezolano y a la sociedad venezolana. Esto ha sido el resultado de un proceso muy lento, porque el hecho es que mi vía para comprender el país ha sido a través de sus mitos. Al final de mi infancia se produce la llamada Revolución de Octubre, la caída de Gallegos y luego la muerte de Delgado Chalbaud, todo eso repercutió muy profundamente en mi trabajo literario. No es que yo sea una escritora histórica pero sí he estado atenta a los ruidos que me rodean: primero percibí las palabras, después las voces y finalmente escuché a la sociedad venezolana. Claro que siempre de una manera oblicua, valiéndome de pretextos.”

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“Although I was very young when I began to write, it’s only now that I understand better the Venezuelan and the Venezuelan society. This has been the result of a very slow process, because the fact is that my way to understand the country has been through its myths. At the end of my childhood the so-called October Revolution took place, the fall of Gallegos and later the death of Delgado Chalbaud. All of that had deep repercussions in my literary work. It’s not that I am an historical writer, but I have been attentive to the noises that surround me: first, I perceived the words, then the voices and finally, I heard Venezuelan society. Of course, always in an oblique manner, making use of pretexts.”

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“Como releí mis piezas de teatro, puedo decirte lo siguiente: en ellas, hay mujeres solas. Pero creo yo, es una soledad de tercer mundo o de dolida lucidez.. . .Son mujeres interesadas en la política, la democracia, la cultura, incluso  los nombramientos de una burocracia no siempre leal. Son muy críticas, lectoras de periódicos. Honestas, pero impotentes para decidir. Hay alguna que es arribista. Otra que, por lo menos, tiene acceso a una entrevista de prensa pero el entrevistador no sabe abordar su torbellino mental, su torbellino emocional; es un testigo inocuo.

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“As I reread my theatrical works, I can tell you the following: in them, there are women who are alone. But I believe that, it is a Third World loneliness or of a painful lucidity. , , They are women who are interested in politics, democracy, culture, even the appointments to a bureaucracy not always loyal. They are critical, readers of newspapers. Honest, but impotent to decide, There is one who is a — climber. Another who, at least, has access to a press interview, but the interviewer doesn’t know how to deal with her mental whirlwind, her emotional whirlwind. He is an innocuous witness.

Adaptado de: http://www.andes.missouri.edu/andes/Especiales/AP_ElisaLerner.html

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“La mujer del periódico de la tarde/The Woman of the Afternoon Paper (1976)

“¿Hijos? No. No tengo. Mi negligencia, mi descuido, mi distracción no me ha permitido tenerlos. Pero, ahora, cuido de cada arruga de mi rostro como
de un hijo. ¡Y en que madre prolífica me he convertido! Por supuesto, el máximo
desaliño ha sido arribar a los cincuenta. (…)  Pero, últimamente, estoy
albergando la convicción de que los productos de primera, en el rostro de
una mujer de cincuenta,  se vuelven  de segunda. (…)
Untándole un poco de petróleo a mi crema Ponds  me siento mucho más nacionalista. (…)
Para una, la inflación comienza después de los cuarenta.Cómo se ponen, entonces, de caros los hombres.”

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“Children? No. I don’t have any. My negligence, my carelessness, my distraction have not permitted me to have them. But, now, I take care of every wrinkle on my face as a child. And what a prolific mother I have become! Of course, the ultimate carelessness has been to arrive at fifty years old. . .But, recently, I have begun harboring the conviction that the first-class products, on the face of a fifty-year-old woman, become second class,…Adding a bit of petroleum jelly to my Ponds cream, makes me feel a bit more nationalist. ..For one, the inflation begins after the forties.  How they become, the men, so expensive.”

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Crónicas Ginecológias (1983) ficción/fiction

Miss Venezuela: otra fracasada versión El Dorado

“Las futuras Miss Venezuela  no son, sólo muchachas de esplendor físico. Ellas son los otros compatriotas, pertenecen a un país implacable, vertiginoso, país de espejismos y azares financieros, donde todos podemos hacernos ricos, en la dominical locura de cinco y seis, o en el burocrático bonche de la corrupción administrativa.”

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Miss Venezuela: Another Failed Version of El Dorado

“The future Miss Venezuelas are not only girls of physical splendor. They are the other compatriots, they belong to an implacable, dizzying country, a country of mirages and financiacial changes, where all of us can get rich, in the Sunday craziness of five and six of the the bureaucratic bunch of administrative corruption.

En el modo del comer venezolano: La Mujer, muy resguardada comensal/The Venezuelan Way of Eating: The Very Safe Dinner Guest

“Ese obediente y reiterado secreto de nuestros comedores, sirvió de algo. Comer para el venezolano terminó siendo un acto de estricta intimidad. Comer, fue un acto donde se coronaban los gozos del tranquilo efecto y de la larga intimidad. De modo que la figura del comensal, pudo tener más resaltada, que el menú en sí. No se invitaba para pregonar enfático gusto, por un convencional plato de arroz con caraotas. Si no, para recibir la fidedigna compañía del comensal.”

“That obedient and repeated secret of our dining rooms, served for a reason. For the Venezuelan, to eat ended up being an act of strict intimacy. So that the figure of the dinner guest, could maintain himself more prominent than the menu itself. One didn’t go out of one’s way to praise a conventional plate of rice with beans. If not even to receive the dependable company of the guest.

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La señorita que amaba por teléfono (2016)

“Desde mi pequeña terraza–esperanzada–miro caer las hojas de un árbol catradlico en el techo de zinc del edificio de enfrente como dulce llamarada de otoño tropical. Sólo me inquieta la harina ignota, desconocida, que se apodera de la montaña cercana cuando comienza a llover. temo que la montañ blanca oculte los recuerdos más íntimos del país”.

From my small terrace–hopeful– I watch the leaves of a    tree in the zinc roof of the building in front like a sweet call of tropical fall. I’m only concerned with the little-known flour, unknown, that takes over the nearby mountain when it begins to rain. I fear that the white mountain my hide intimate memories of the country [Venezuela}.

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El Youtube está en español.

This Youtube is in Spanish, though easy to follow and with many photographs.

 

Las sinagogas de Colombia y Venezuela/The Synagogues of Colombia and Venezuela

Sinagogas de Colombia

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Sinagoga Calle 94, Bogotá

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Sinagoga Asociación Montefiore, Bogotá

Beit-Keneset
Comunidad Judía, Bogotá

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Sinagoga Agadat Israel, Bogotá

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Comunidad Israelita de Barranquilla

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Sinagoga Bet El, Baranquilllia  – Interior

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Guido Cohen, el rabino de la Comunidad Masortí  (Conservadora) Asociación Israelita Montefiore de Bogotá describe la situación de los judíos de Colombia. “Hay las plurales comunidades judías bogotanas y colombianas que cuentan con profesionales activos en todas las áreas de la sociedad de Colombia. Un país dónde, según Cohen, no existe el antisemitismo.

Hay alrededor de 5,000 judíos en Colombia. Existe el colegio judío de Bogotá, sus tres sinagogas, la excelente relación y colaboración establecida entre las diferentes corrientes del judaísmo a que conviven en este país”

Adaptado de:  https://www.radiosefarad.com/guido-cohen-es-facil-ser-judio-en-bogota

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Guido Cohen, the rabbi of Comunidad Masortí  (Conservadora) Asociación Israelita Montefiore in Bogotá describes the situation of the Jews of Colombia. There is a plurality of Jewish communities there and throughout Colombia who have active professionals ine every area of Colombian society. This is a country, according to Cohen, in which anti-Semitism does not exist.

There are about 5,000 Jews in Colombia. There is a Jewish high school in Bogotá, where there are three synagogues. There is an excellent relationship and established collaboration among the different currents of Judaism, who live together in the country.”

Adapted : https://www.radiosefarad.com/guido-cohen-es-facil-ser-judio-en-bogota

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Sinagogas de Venezuela

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Sinagoga Tiferet Israel, Caracas

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Sinagoga, Bet Aharon, Caracas

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Sinagoga Tiferet Israel del Este, Caracas

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Sinagoga Beth Abraham, Caracas

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Sinagoga Bet-El, Caracas

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Venezuela es el hogar de unos 5.000 judíos. Alrededor de 20.000 judíos venezolanos abandonaron el país en la última década debido a las condiciones económicas, y en particular debido a cómo la comunidad judía ha sido tratada desde 2009.

La Operación Plomo Fundido (en el invierno de 2008-2009) fue un punto de inflexión para los judíos del país. Se enfrentaron a la discriminación de activistas anti-israelíes y las sinagogas fueron objeto de vandalismo.

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Venezuela is the home of about 5,000 Jews. Around 20,000 Venezuelan Jews left the country during the last decade, because of the economic condition, and in particular because of the way the Jewish community had been treated since 2009.

Operation Molten Lead (in the winter of 2008-2009) was a turning point for the Jews of the country, They faced discrimination from anti-Israel activists and the synagogues were the object of vandalism.

Artículo original de https://israelnoticias.com/editorial/judios-venezuela-caos-pais-sudamericano/

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Alberto Dines (1932-2018) — Jornalista e professor do jornalismo brasileiro- judaico/Periodista y profesor de periodismo judío-brasileño/Brazilian Jewish Journalist and Professor of Journalism

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Alberto Dines

(Em Portugués;  En Español; In English)

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Alberto Dines nasceu em 1932, no Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Iniciou sua carreira em 1952, quando começou a escrever para a revista A Cena Muda (RJ). Na revista Manchete (RJ), começou como repórter e passou. Entrou para o Jornal do Brasil (RJ), em 1962, como editor-chefe, onde depois também dirigiria os cadernos Comunicação e Cadernos de Jornalismo. Em 1963, criou a cadeira de jornalismo comparado da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro. Em 1968, foi preso após criticar a ditadura em um discurso na universidade. Sua passagem pelo Jornal do Brasil ficou marcada pelo aperfeiçoamento que ele implantou no jornal, além de pelo menos duas capas históricas no período da ditadura militar. Em 1971, ganhou o prêmio Maria Moors Cabot da Universidade de Columbia (EUA), onde em 1973 se tornaria professor.No mesmo ano, foi demitido do Jornal do Brasil após uma série de manchetes e artigos que criticavam a ditadura brasileira e que noticiavam o golpe contra Salvador Allende, no Chile. Em 1975, assumiu a chefia da sucursal do Rio de Janeiro da Folha de S. Paulo (SP), onde ficou até 1980. Nesse período, criou o espaço Jornal dos Jornais, dentro da Folha, em que entre 1975 e 1977 fez críticas ao jornalismo na época. Após escrever uma sátira para o Pasquim (RJ), famoso por fazer críticas à ditadura, Dines deixou a Folha. Em 1982, mudou-se para Lisboa (Portugal), para realizar pesquisas para uma biografia do escritor Stefan Zweig.  Em 1988, foi nomeado diretor do Grupo Abril em Portugal. Em 1993, resultado de uma parceria com Carlos Vogt, reitor da Universidade Estadual de Campinas – na época interessado em implementar um centro de estudos de Jornalismo –, foi cofundador do Laboratório de Estudos Avançados em Jornalismo da universidade. Dois anos depois, por meio do Instituto para o Desenvolvimento do Jornalismo, criou o Observatório da Imprensa, site com presença regular na Internet desde abril de 1996, do qual é editor responsável desde o início. O portal ganhou sua versão televisiva em 5 de maio de 1998, veiculada semanalmente pela TV Brasil,  e no rádio, em 2005, com um programa transmitido diariamente pelas rádios. Escreveu cerca de 15 livros de ficção, reportagens, teoria e prática jornalística, biografia e história. Entre eles: Posso?1972; O papel do jornal, 1974; E por que não eu, 1979); Morte no Paraíso – a tragédia de Stefan Zweig, 1981; O Baú de Abravanel  1990; Vínculos do fogo, Tomo I 1992, e O papel e a profissão de jornalista, 2009. Fundou e segue como dirigente em 2015 do site Observatório da Imprensa, e faz o programa com o mesmo título no rádio e na televisão da Rede Pública. Ainda em 2012, em junho, Dines foi indicado ao Prêmio Herzog Especial.  Foi eleito em 2014 entre os ‘TOP 50’ dos Admirados Jornalistas Brasileiros pelo trabalho desenvolvido na Folha de S.Paulo. Reeleito em 2015 confirmou a presença entre os 50 mais admirados do Brasil.

Adaptado do Portal dos Jornalistas

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Alberto Dines nació en 1932, en Río de Janeiro (RJ). Comenzó su carrera en 1952, cuando comenzó a escribir para la revista A Cena Muda (RJ). En la revista Manchete (RJ), comenzó como reportero. Se unió a Jornal do Brasil (RJ), en 1962, como editor e jefe, donde más tarde también dirigiría Cadernos Comunicação y Cadernos de Jornalismo. En 1963, creó la cátedra de periodismo comparativo de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Río de Janeiro. En 1968, fue arrestado luego de criticar a la dictadura en un discurso en la universidad. Su tiempo en Jornal do Brasil estuvo marcado por la mejora y la implementación en el periódico, así como al menos dos portadas históricas durante la dictadura militar. En 1971, ganó el Premio Maria Moors Cabot de la Universidad de Columbia (EE. UU.), donde en 1973 se convertiría en profesor. En el mismo año, fue despedido de Jornal do Brasil después de una serie de titulares y artículos que criticaron a la dictadura brasileña e informaron el golpe contra Salvador Allende en Chile. En 1975, asumió la dirección de la sucursal de Folha de S. Paulo (SP) en Río de Janeiro, donde permaneció hasta 1980. Durante este período, creó el espacio Diario del periódico dentro de Folha, en el cual, entre 1975 y 1977, criticó el periodismo en ese momento. Después de escribir una sátira para Pasquim (RJ), famoso por criticar la dictadura, Dines dejó Folha. En 1982, se mudó a Lisboa (Portugal) para realizar una investigación para una biografía del escritor Stefan Zweig. En 1988, fue nombrado director del Grupo Abril en Portugal. En 1993, como resultado de una asociación con Carlos Vogt, decano de la Universidad Estatal de Campinas, en ese momento interesado en implementar un centro de estudio de periodismo, cofundó el Laboratorio de Estudios Avanzados de Periodismo de la Universidad. Dos años más tarde, a través del Instituto para el Desarrollo del Periodismo, creó el Observatorio de la Prensa, un sitio web con presencia regular en Internet desde abril de 1996, del cual ha sido editor responsable desde el principio. El portal ganó su versión televisiva el 5 de mayo de 1998, transmitido semanalmente por TV Brasil, y en la radio en 2005, con un programa transmitido diariamente en la radio. Ha escrito unos 15 libros de ficción, reportajes, teoría y práctica periodística, biografía e historia. Entre ellos: ¿Puedo? 1972; El papel del periódico, 1974; Y por qué no yo, 1979; Muerte en el paraíso: la tragedia de Stefan Zweig, 1981; en 1990; Bonds of Fire, Tomo I 1 y The Role and Profession of Journalism, 2009. Fundada y continúa como directora en 2015 del sitio web del Observatorio de la Prensa, y realiza el programa con el mismo título en radio y televisión de la Red Pública. También en 2012, en junio, Dines fue nominado para el Premio Especial Herzog. Fue elegido en 2014 entre los “TOP 50” de los admirados periodistas brasileños por su trabajo en Folha de S.Paulo. Reelegido en 2015 confirmó la presencia entre los 50 más admirados en Brasil.

Adaptado el Portal de Periodistas

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Alberto Dines was born in 1932, in Rio de Janeiro (RJ). He began his career in 1952, when he began writing for the magazine A Cena Muda (RJ). In Manchete magazine (RJ), he started as a reporter. He joined Jornal do Brasil (RJ), in 1962, as editor-in-chief, where he would later also direct the Cadernos Comunicação and Cadernos de Jornalismo. In 1963, he created the comparative journalism chair of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. In 1968, he was arrested after criticizing the dictatorship in a speech at the university. His time at Jornal do Brasil was marked by the improvements he implemented in the newspaper, as well as at least two historical articles during the military dictatorship. In 1971, he won the Maria Moors Cabot Prize from Columbia University (USA), where in 1973 he would become a professor. In the same year, he was fired from Jornal do Brasil after a series of headlines and articles that criticized the Brazilian dictatorship and reported the coup against Salvador Allende in Chile. In 1975, he took over as head of the Rio de Janeiro branch of Folha de São Paulo (SP), where he stayed until 1980. During this period, he created the Jornal dos Jornais space within Folha, in which, between 1975 and 1977, he criticized the journalism at the time. After writing a satire for Pasquim (RJ), famous for criticizing the dictatorship, Dines left Folha. In 1982, he moved to Lisbon (Portugal) to conduct research for a biography of writer Stefan Zweig. , – at the time he was interested in setting up a journalism study center -, he co-founded the University’s Advanced Journalism Studies Laboratory. Two years later, through the Institute for the Development of Journalism, he created the Press Observatory, a website with regular internet presence since April 1996, of which he has been a responsible editor from the beginning. The program won its television version on May 5, 1998, broadcasted weekly by TV Brasil, and on the radio in 2005, with a program daily broadcasts on the radio. He has written about 15 books of fiction, reporting, journalistic theory and practice, biography and history. Among them: May I? 1972; The Rose of the Newspaper, 1974; And why not me, 1979); Death in Paradise – the tragedy of Stefan Zweig, 1981; The Abravanel Chest, 1990; Bonds of Fire, Volume I 1992, and The Role and Profession of 2009. He founded and continued as director in 2015 of the Observatory of the Press website, and did the program with the same title on radio and television of the Public Network. Also in 2012, in June, Dines was nominated for the Herzog Special Award. He was elected in 2014 among the ‘TOP 50 ″ of the Admired Brazilian Journalists for his work at Folha de Sáo Paulo. Re-elected in 2015, he confirmed his presence among the 50 most admired in Brazil.

Adapted from the Portal de Periodistas

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Precisa-se: gente igual com disposição diferente

Existem profissões especiais? Até que ponto o jornalismo é diferente de outras atividades da sociedade moderna? O jornalismo é uma profissão ou um estado de espírito?

Mesmo em uma empresa de comunicação, os jornalistas são considerados privilegiados. Aqueles que procuram o poder os endeusam. Aqueles que chegaram ao poder os abominam. O público os vê mitologicamente.

Que é, pois, o jornalista? Já vimos, no capítulo introdutório, o desenvolvimento pelo qual passou a profissão e o seu estudo. Já vimos que o jornalista se relaciona com o leitor como um psicanalista com seu paciente, um marido com sua mulher, o pai com seu filho. São espelhos um do outro, reflexos, continuações, interações, partes, enfim, de um mesmo processo. Jornalista é o intermediário da sociedade, tem dito o sociólogo americano Paul Lazarsfeld.

Já anotamos que o jornalismo, por ser uma atividade essencialmente intelectual, pressupõe no seu exercício uma série de valores morais e éticos. Sabe-se que o processo de informar é um processo formador; portanto, o jornalista, em última análise, é um educador.

Essa lista de características é, no entanto, de caráter geral. Quais os componentes específicos da atitude jornalística? Uma exegese detalhada se faz necessária, a fim de evitar que o jornalista assuma aprioristicamente um “comportamento” sem o devido lastro psicológico e subjetivo.

Nesse sentido, vale mencionar experiências que fizemos com turmas da PUC e em seminários internos para a formação de estagiários do Jornal do Brasil. Acreditando que o treinamento profissional de um jornalista compreende também um cuidadoso preparo subjetivo e sensorial, assim como o arquiteto deve ser preparado para sentir volumes, espaços e formas, convocamos alguns especialistas para preparar o “lado de dentro” do futuro jornalista.3 Em outras oportunidades, já pensando no jornalista profissionalizado

O jornalista não necessariamente deve compor o tipo expansivo, entusiasta, ágil, “durão”, cuja imagem o público já mentalizou. Pode ser até calado e delicado. Porém, intimamente deve ser um espírito inconformado e inquieto. O jornalista não pode contentar-se com a primeira informação, impressão ou inferência, nem acomodar-se ao primeiro obstáculo. Quantas vezes a não notícia é uma excelente notícia? Basta trabalhá-la.  Pejorativamente, diz-se que o jornalista é um cavador.

Diríamos, melhorando o termo, que o jornalista é um permanente buscador. Jornalista conformado não é jornalista. O profissional de imprensa pessimista ou cínico prejulga, não acredita no que pode acontecer, pois já sabe o que vai acontecer. Quem não acredita na notícia não a persegue e não a encontra.

Há um componente otimista dentro da profissão que a torna vulnerável às tendências, aguça percepção, espicaça a criatividade. Essa inquietação gerou é gerada por uma permanente sensibilização. Qualquer anormalidade deve ser percebida, seguida, desvendada. O jornalista é o profissional da indagação, do questionamento. No nível operacional, o jornalista se caracteriza pela permanente tomada de decisões. Mesmo sem o treino do rápido decision making, está permanentemente tomando decisões em ritmo veloz. Se fotógrafo, é o ângulo da fotografia que importa, uma decisão, portanto. Se repórter, importam o enfoque da notícia, a pergunta ao entrevistado e a escolha do próprio entrevistado. Se chefe, tem de avaliar incessantemente a incrível massa de informações despejada sobre sua mesa, aferir sua veracidade, avaliar sua importância e definir seu destaque. Ao escrever, cada palavra é uma decisão, cada informação, uma decisão, cada orientação, decisão. Durante todo o tempo em que desempenha sua atividade diária – e já vimos que esta não se limita ao horário de trabalho –, o jornalista seleciona e opta.

Nessa sucessão de alternativas que resulta na escolha de uma delas, inclui-se como consequência lógica o senso de responsabilidade. Aqui se insere um vasto debate sobre o exercício da profissão e os limites que a ela vêm sendo impostos. Toda vez que a imprensa incomoda, a primeira reação é calá-la. Cria-se, assim, uma gangorra de crime e castigo que desemboca nos regimes censórios, de consequências tão funestas.

Poucos se lembram, no entanto, de recorrer ao único meio capaz de colocar o espírito investigativo do jornalista no contexto do contrato social segundo o qual vivemos – a lei da responsabilidade. No fim do governo Castello Branco (1966), depois de um exemplar período de liberdade de expressão (considerando que o regime era excepcional), pretendeu-se aprovar uma Lei de Imprensa para enquadrar os crimes cometidos no exercício da profissão. Na ocasião, o Jornal do Brasil procurou convencer o governo a adotar uma legislação genérica de responsabilidade, incluindo médicos, industriais que menosprezam as especificações dos seus produtos, engenheiros cujas obras contêm falhas etc.

Uma legislação específica contra crimes de imprensa – atentados à responsabilidade como outros quaisquer – confere à atividade jornalística uma regalia jurídica injustificável. A pregação do Jornal do Brasil não vingou e a Lei de Imprensa foi aprovada.

O único elemento capaz de sanear a imprensa é um revigoramento geral do senso de responsabilidade. Primeiro, por parte do governo – criando o clima de liberdade com respeito. Depois, das fontes de notícias, que, percebendo a desatenção ou descuido do repórter, se aproveitam da situação para “plantar” informes perigosos. E, finalmente, da empresa jornalística, de onde deve partir uma atmosfera permanente de seriedade e dignidade. O repórter que percebe uma atitude solerte na nota redigida pela direção ou nos editoriais inconscientemente a absorverá, passando a adotar os mesmos padrões.

O jornalista entrosa-se com a responsabilidade muito mais facilmente do que com a punição e o arbítrio. Especialmente se essa responsabilidade for um padrão de toda a sociedade que ele representa. O jornalista sabe que, ao redigir uma nota de três linhas, pode estar destruindo uma reputação e uma vida. Trabalhando nos bastidores da informação, avalia a força que tem. Para ele, um limite, desde que não seja arbitrário, é mais confortável e protetor que a impunidade.

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Necesario: mismas personas con diferente disposición

¿Hay profesiones especiales? ¿En qué se diferencia el periodismo de otras actividades de la sociedad moderna? ¿Es el periodismo una profesión o un estado mental?

Incluso en una empresa de comunicaciones, los periodistas son considerados privilegiados. Los que buscan poder los deifican. Los que han llegado al poder los aborrecen. El público los ve mitológicamente.

¿Qué es, entonces, el periodista? Ya hemos visto en el capítulo introductorio el desarrollo de la profesión y su estudio. Ya hemos visto que el periodista se relaciona con el lector como un psicoanalista con su paciente, un esposo con su esposa, el padre con su hijo. Son espejos el uno del otro, reflejos, continuaciones, interacciones, partes, en resumen, del mismo proceso. El periodista es el intermediario de la sociedad, ha sido el sociólogo estadounidense Paul Lazarsfeld.

Ya hemos señalado que el periodismo, como actividad esencialmente intelectual, presupone en su ejercicio una serie de valores morales y éticos. Se sabe que el proceso de informar es un proceso formativo; por lo tanto, el periodista es finalmente un educador. Esta lista de características, sin embargo, es de carácter general. ¿Cuáles son los componentes específicos de la actitud periodística? Es necesaria una exégesis detallada para evitar que el periodista asuma un “comportamiento” a priori sin el lastre psicológico y subjetivo adecuado.

En este sentido, vale la pena mencionar las experiencias que hemos tenido con las clases de la PUC y en seminarios internos para la capacitación de aprendices de Jornal do Brasil. Creyendo que la capacitación profesional de un periodista también incluye una cuidadosa preparación subjetiva y sensorial, así como el arquitecto debe estar preparado para sentir volúmenes, espacios y formas, llamamos a algunos expertos para preparar el “interior” del futuro periodista. En otros oportunidades, ya pensando en el periodista profesional.

El periodista no necesariamente debe componer el tipo expansivo, entusiasta, ágil, “duro” cuya imagen el público ya ha mentalizado. Incluso puede ser silencioso y delicado. Pero íntimamente debe ser un espíritu inquieto e inquieto. El periodista no puede contentarse con la primera información, impresión o inferencia, ni acomodarse al primer obstáculo. ¿Con qué frecuencia las noticias no son buenas noticias? Solo resuélvelo. Peyorativamente, se dice que el periodista es un cavador. Diríamos, mejorando el término, que el periodista es un buscador permanente. Periodista conformado no es periodista. Los prejuicios profesionales pesimistas o cínicos de la prensa, no creen lo que puede suceder porque él ya sabe lo que sucederá. Quienes no creen las noticias no las persiguen y no las encuentran.

Hay un componente optimista dentro de la profesión que la hace vulnerable a las tendencias, agudiza la percepción y estimula la creatividad. Este malestar generado es generado por una conciencia permanente. Cualquier anormalidad debe ser percibida, luego descubierta. El periodista es el profesional de la investigación, del interrogatorio. A nivel operativo, el periodista se caracteriza por la toma de decisiones permanente. Incluso sin una formación rápida en la toma de decisiones, e tomar decisiones de forma rápida y permanente. Si es fotógrafo, lo que importa es el ángulo de la fotografía, una decisión, por lo tanto. Si usted es reportero, es importante el foco de las noticias, la pregunta al entrevistado y la elección del entrevistado mismo. Si eres un jefe, tienes que evaluar sin cesar la increíble cantidad de información vertida en tu escritorio, medir su verdad, medir su importancia y definir su importancia. Por escrito, cada palabra es una decisión, cada información, una decisión, cada orientación, decisión. A lo largo de su actividad diaria, y hemos visto que no se limita a las horas de trabajo, el periodista selecciona y elige.

En esta sucesión de alternativas que resulta en la elección de una de ellas, el sentido de responsabilidad se incluye como una consecuencia lógica. Aquí hay un amplio debate sobre el ejercicio de la profesión y los límites que se le imponen. Cada vez que la prensa te molesta, la primera reacción es callarla. Esto crea una oscilación de la delincuencia y el castigo que resulta en regímenes censales con consecuencias tan graves. Sin embargo, pocos recuerdan recurrir al único medio capaz de ubicar el espíritu investigador del periodista en el contexto del contrato social en el que vivimos: la ley de responsabilidad. Al final del gobierno de Castello Branco (1966), después de un período ejemplar de libertad de expresión (considerando que el régimen era excepcional), tenía la intención de aprobar una Ley de Prensa para enmarcar los delitos cometidos en el ejercicio de la profesión. En ese momento, Jornal do Brasil buscaba persuadir al gobierno para que adoptara una legislación genérica de responsabilidad, incluidos médicos, industriales que ignoran las especificaciones de sus productos, ingenieros cuyos trabajos contienen fallas, etc.

La legislación específica contra los crímenes de prensa (infracciones de responsabilidad como cualquier otra) otorga a la actividad periodística un privilegio legal injustificable. La predicación de Jornal do Brasil no tuvo éxito y se aprobó la Ley de Prensa. El único elemento que puede limpiar la prensa es una revitalización general del sentido de responsabilidad. Primero, desde el gobierno, creando el clima de libertad con respeto. Luego, de fuentes de noticias que, al darse cuenta de la falta de atención o descuido del periodista, aprovechan la situación para “plantar” informes peligrosos. Y finalmente, de la empresa periodística, de donde debe surgir una atmósfera permanente de seriedad y dignidad.

El periodista que percibe una actitud floja en la nota escrita por la gerencia o los editoriales la absorberá inconscientemente, adoptando los mismos estándares. El periodista mezcla la responsabilidad mucho más fácilmente que el castigo y la agencia. Especialmente si esta responsabilidad es un estándar de toda la sociedad que representa. El periodista sabe que escribir una nota de tres líneas podría estar destruyendo una reputación y una vida. Trabajando detrás de escena, evalúa su fuerza. Para él, un límite, siempre que no sea arbitrario, es más cómodo y protector que la impunidad.

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“Needed: Similar people with different dispositions”

Are there any special professions? How is journalism different from other activities of modern society? Is journalism a profession or a state of mind?

Even in a communications company, journalists are considered privileged. Those who seek power deify them. Those who have come to power abhor them. The public sees them mythologically. What, then, is the journalist? We have already seen in the introductory chapter the development through which the profession went and its study. We have already seen that the journalist relates to the reader as a psychoanalyst with his patient, a husband with his wife, the father with his son. They are mirrors of each other, reflexes, continuations, interactions, parts, in short, of the same process. Journalist is the intermediary of the society, has been the American sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld.

We have already noted that journalism, as an essentially intellectual activity, presupposes in its exercise a series of moral and ethical values. The process of informing is known to be a formative process; therefore, the journalist is ultimately an educator. This list of characteristics, however, is general in character. What are the specific components of the journalistic attitude? A detailed exegesis is necessary, the in order to prevent the journalist from assuming a priori “behavior” without the proper psychological and subjective ballast.

In this regard, it is worth mentioning experiences we had with PUC classes and in internal seminars to train interns at Jornal do Brasil. Believing that a journalist’s professional training also includes careful subjective and sensory preparation, just as the architect must be prepared to feel volumes, spaces and forms, we call upon some experts to prepare the “inside” of the future journalist. In others opportunities, already thinking about the professional journalist The journalist must not necessarily compose the expansive, enthusiastic, agile, “tough” type whose image the public has already mentalised. It can even be silent and delicate. But intimately it must be an unruly and restless spirit. The journalist cannot be content with the first information, impression or inference, nor accommodate to the first obstacle. How often is not news great news? Just work it out. Pejoratively, the journalist is said to be a digger. We would say, improving the term, that the journalist is a permanent seeker.

An accepting journalist is not a journalist. The pessimistic or cynical press professional prejudices, does not believe what can happen because he already knows what will happen. Who doesn’t believe in the news doesn’t pursue and does not find it. There is an optimistic component within the profession that makes it vulnerable to trends, sharpens perception, spurs creativity. This unrest generated is generated by a permanent awareness. Any abnormalities must be perceived, then uncovered.

The journalist is the professional of inquiry, of questioning. At the operational level, the journalist is characterized by permanent decision making. Even without fast decision making training, you are always making fast-paced decisions. If a photographer, it is the angle of photography that matters, a decision, therefore. If you are a reporter, it matters the focus of the news, the question to the interviewee and the choice of the interviewee himself. If you’re a boss, you have to ceaselessly evaluate the incredible mass of information poured on your desk, gauge its truth, gauge its importance, and define its prominence. In writing, every word is a decision, every information, a decision, every orientation, decision. Throughout his daily activity – and we have seen that it is not limited to working hours – the journalist selects and chooses. In this succession of alternatives that results in the choice of one of them, the sense of responsibility is included as a logical consequence. Here is a wide debate about the exercise of the profession and the limits imposed on it. Every time the press bothers you, the first reaction is to shut it up. This creates a crime seesaw and punishment that results in census regimes, with such dire consequences.

Few remember, however, to resort to the only means capable of placing the investigative spirit of the journalist in the context of the social contract under which we live – the law of responsibility. At the end of the Castello Branco administration (1966), after an exemplary period of freedom of expression (considering that the regime was exceptional), it was intended to approve a Press Law to frame the crimes committed in the exercise of the profession. At the time, Jornal do Brasil sought to persuade the government to adopt generic liability legislation, including doctors, industrialists who disregard the specifications of their products, engineers whose works contain flaws, etc. Specific legislation against press crimes – breaches of liability like any other – gives journalistic activity unjustifiable legal privilege. The preaching of Jornal do Brasil did not succeed and the Press Law was approved. The only element that can clean up the press is a general reinvigoration of the sense of responsibility. First, from the government – creating the climate of freedom with respect. Then, from news sources, who, realizing the reporter’s inattention or carelessness, take advantage of the situation to “plant” dangerous reports. And finally, from the journalistic company, where a permanent atmosphere of seriousness and dignity must come from.

The reporter who perceives a loose attitude from the management or in editorials will unconsciously absorb it, adopting the same standards. The journalist mingles responsibility much more easily than punishment and agency. Especially if this responsibility is a society-wide standard that it represents. The journalist knows that writing a three-line note could be destroying a reputation and a life. Working behind the scenes, he assesses his strength. For him, a limit, as long as it is not arbitrary, is more comfortable and protective than impunity.

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Dines, Alberto. O Papel do Jornal e a Profissão de Jornalista . Summus Editorial. Kindle Edition.

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Moico Yaker — Artista judío-peruano/Peruvian Jewish Artist — Sobre “Teniendo problemas para rezar” “On Having Trouble to Pray”

 

Moico Yaker Editadas (3)
Moico Yaker

Moico Yaker’s Website

Moico Yaker

Moico Yaker nació en Arequipa, Perú in 1949. Estudió Arquitectura en la University of Miami (EEUU), También estudió literatura, filosofía e historia en la Universidad Hebrea de Jerusalem. Fue a la Escuela de Dibujo y Pintura “Byam Shaw” en Londres y a la École National Supérièure de Beaux-Arts, Paris.

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Moico Yaker was born in Arequipa, Peru, in 1949. He studied Architecture at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida, He also studied literature, philosophy and history at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He attended the “Byam Shaw” School of Drawing and Painting in London and the École National Supérièure de Beaux-Arts in Paris.

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“Tener problemas para orar” es una serie continua de sesenta dibujos que representan a un adorador cuya crisis existencial asume dimensiones inesperadas y a veces fantásticas.

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SOBRE “TENIENDO PROBLEMAS PARA REZAR”

Una mañana en Tel Aviv, decidí que la única forma en que podía orar era salir a las calles en busca de una persona religiosa que me obligara a hacerlo. Necesitaba sentir que las rayas de cuero del tefilín apretaban mi piel para precipitar nuevamente de mi corazón el fluido de las emociones que una vez me calentaron los días. Paseé por las calles de Bnei Barak infructuosamente durante unos días, pero no pude encontrar lo que estaba buscando. “Tener problemas para orar” comenzó allí, donde la representación intenta cumplir el mismo acto de orar. . .o de “no rezar”. Un ritual matutino de rayas de tinta en la piel del papel.

Ese día dibujo mi oración mientras mis dedos, enredados en rayas, corren como sangre tan negra como un toro furioso. A la mañana siguiente, mientras dibujaba mi lectura de las palabras santas, son cálidas, como el gato de mi hija acariciando mi pierna. Pero debo concentrarme y trato de encontrar una mejor posición para leer mis oraciones. Me paro en un brazo. Puse el libro en el suelo y lo leí doblado. Pero luego un olivo comienza a crecer de mis dedos, y lo aprieto en mi brazo para dejar claros signos de mi devoción. Al día siguiente, el arbusto ha crecido profusamente, ha florecido. Cuando escuché un zumbido y vi que un grupo de insectos se había unido a mí, cantando al unísono, combinamos nuestras voces y vi cómo sus alas estampadas y las rayas negras alrededor de mi brazo se veían iguales. “Todos debemos ser judíos”, dije. Luego comenzaron a llegar pájaros más coloridos y loros de la jungla, que se acomodaron en el árbol que crecía lentamente de mi cuello. Estaba tratando de repetir solemnemente esas palabras que en un trueno unen todas las cosas en una. . . Pero mi cuerpo ahora se sentía tan ligero como un susurro y podía escuchar a todos mis invitados, algunos silbando y otros chillando en el dosel al ritmo de las letras hinchadas de tinta que no había podido leer. Volví a mirar mi libro de oraciones y noté cuán blanco y desprovisto de tinta se había vuelto mi cuerpo sentado. . Me estremecí en mi transparencia, haciendo que todos los pájaros e insectos de tinta negra saltaran en un trueno de la página blanca, volviéndome una vez más al vacío del día. Pero a la mañana siguiente había crecido un limonero donde aún se podía oír el divino grito. tratando de leer n mandarinas. . . Todos éramos judíos y comenzamos a cantar una canción. Tenía que poner fin a todas estas distracciones banales y concentrarme en mi propósito: tenía que liberar mis oídos y mis ojos, esperando alguna respuesta. En silencio, comencé a envolver las filacterias negras y devolverlas a sus pequeños hogares. En el camino, las rayas de tinta negra surgieron abruptamente de la página blanca y comenzaron a girar y girar caprichosamente, recordándome todos los lugares donde habían estado. Un brazo vacío, mi cabeza desnuda, pájaros cantando sobre el amor, un toro furioso, una flor abierta, un ciervo ciego, todos ellos repetidos incansablemente, en blanco y negro, cómo los árboles, pájaros y montañas, nubes y lluvia, se regocijaban en su recreación; un caos organizado en el que las cabezas y los brazos estaban agrupados en patrones de líneas negras que cobraron vida en cantos piadosos.

Me aparté, notando cuán ansiosamente se reproducían. Estaba sudando tinta negra en mi piel de papel blanco. La intensidad de su devoción los había hecho sólidos, como el canto de toda una sinagoga; mi propia voz ya no se podía escuchar. Me escondí dentro de mi chal de oración, deseando el silencio de una respuesta. Hoy mi piel de papel es blanca otra vez, el espacio vacío que refleja esa hora devota en Tel Aviv. No hay respuestas en su superficie, solo la vanidad de otro lunes por la mañana y un leve recuerdo de mi sueño.

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“Having trouble to Pray” is an ongoing series of sixty drawings that depict a worshiper whose existential crisis assumes unexpected and sometimes fantastical dimensions

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“ABOUT: HAVING TROUBLE TO PRAY”

That day I draw my prayer as my fingers, entangled in stripes, run like blood as black as a raging bull. The next morning as I draw my reading of the saintly words, they are warm – like my daughter’s cat caressing my leg. But I must concentrate, and I try to find a better position to read my prayers. I stand on one arm. I put the book on the floor and read it bending. But then an olive tree starts to grow from my fingers, and I squeeze it on my arm to leave clear signs of my devotion. By the next day the bush has grown profusely, it has flowered. When I heard a buzz and saw a group of insects had joined me, chanting in unison, we matched our voices and I saw how their patterned wings and the black stripes around my arm looked just the same. “We must all be Jewish,” I said. Then more colorful birds and jungle parrots began to arrive, arraying themselves on the tree that was slowly growing out of my neck. I was trying to solemnly repeat those words that in a thunder unite all things in one. . . But my body now felt as light as a whisper and  I could  hear all of my guests—some whistling and others screeching on the canopy to the rhythm of the of the ink-swollen letters that I had been unable to read. I looked back at my prayer book and noticed how white and devoid of ink my seated body had become. . .I shivered in my transparency, making all the black-ink birds and insects to jump in a thunder out of the white page, returning me once again to the emptiness of the day. But next morning a lemon tree had grown where the divine warbling could still be heard. There were many juicy fruits, and the weight of the black ink perfumed the intricate branches that grew tightly around the words of awe I was trying to read.

“This fruit must also be Jewish,” I said, hoping to warm my heart with a feeling of mutual understanding. But I had to make sure and insisted on having the round delightful shapes of my fruits perform my ultimate intention. Quickly, I wound them around my own pen and ink as a sign of belonging to my community. And the lemons turned to apples and they became bananas and soon tangerines. . . We were all Jewish and we began to sing a song. I had to end all these banal distractions and concentrate on my purpose—had to liberate my ears and my eyes, hoping for some answer. Silently, I started to wrap the black phylacteries and return them to their small homes. On the way, the black ink stripes abruptly arose out of the white page and started to twist and swirl capriciously, reminding me of all the places they had been. An empty arm, my naked head, birds singing about love, a raging bull, an open flower, a blind deer, all of them repeated tirelessly, in black and white, how trees, birds and mountains, clouds and rain, rejoiced in their recreation; an organized chaos in which heads and arms were bundled up in think , black-lined patterns that became alive in pious chanting.

I stood back, noticing how eagerly they reproduced. I was sweating black ink on my white paper skin. The intensity of their devotion had made them become solid, like the chant of a whole synagogue; my own voice could no longer be heard. I hid within my prayer shawl, wishing for the silence of an answer. Today my paper skin is white again, the empty space reflecting that devout hour in Tel Aviv. There are no answers on its surface, only the vanity of another Monday morning and a faint remembrance of my dream.

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Las sinagogas de Ciudad México/ The Synagogues of Mexico City

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Las sinagogas de Ciudad México/ The Synagogues of Mexico City

En la Ciudad de México, hay una plétora de sinagogas que sirven a la comunidad de 35 mil judíos. La gran mayoría son ortodoxos: Askenazí, de origen europeo, Misrají,—en general de origen de Siria y Sefardí, de origen de los descendientes de los que tuvieron que dejar España después de 1492. Además, hay dos sinagogas de Masorti Olami (Conservadora) que tienen, en general, rabinos y cantores entrenados en el Seminario Judío-latinoamericano “Marshall Meyer Z”L”. Y hay centros de Jabad, ultra-ortodoxo.

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In Mexico City, there is a plethora of synagogues that serve the community of 35,000 Jews. The vast majority are Orthodox: Ashkenazi of European origin, Misrajíes — in general from Syria and Sephardic, of origin from the descendants of those who had to leave Spain after 1492. In addition, there are two synagogues of Masorti Olami (Conservative) that they have, in general, rabbis and singers trained in the Jewish-Latin American Seminary “Marshall Meyer Z” L “. And there are centers of Chabad, ultra-orthodox.

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Algunas de las sinagogas destacadas de la Ciudad de México

Some of the Outstanding Synagogues of Mexico City     

 

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Sinagoga Histórica “Justo Sierra”   — Ortodoxa                                            

Sinagoga Histórica “Justo Sierra” post

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Comunidad Bet-El  — Conservadora

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Sinagoga Bet-El — Interior

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Sinagoga Moguén David — Ortodoxa

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Sinagoga Moguén David — detalle

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Sinagoga Sefaradí  — Ortodoxa

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Rodfe Zedek –     Ortodoxa

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Sinagoga Monte Sinai — Ortodoxa

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Sinagoga Monte Sinai –Interior

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Sinagoga de Colonia Roma

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Comunidad Bet Itzak – Ortodoxa

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Informe sobre dos de las sinagogas en Ciudad México

Information about two of the synagogues of Mexico City

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Bet Izhak

Ortodoxa

La construcción de esta sinagoga culminó en 1967. El ingeniero Boris Albin fue el responsable de la obra, la cual responde a un estilo contemporáneo. Por fuera, podría pasar inadvertido, casi como un edificio de oficinas. Pero vale la pena ingresar para percatarse de que es una hermosa sinagoga, con espacios amplios y mucha iluminación. Es importante aclarar, que pese al aspecto moderno de su exterior, sus adentros son muy similares a las sinagogas del siglo XII, pues sus muros están cubiertos de libros hebreos. Cabe mencionar, que hay un proyecto que quiere construir un centro comunitario Bet Itzjak.

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Bet Izhak

Ortodoxa

Eugenio Sue s / n, col. Polanco

The construction of this synagogue culminated in 1967. The engineer Boris Albin was responsible for the work, which responds to a contemporary style. On the outside, it could go unnoticed, almost like an office building. But it is worth entering to realize that it is a beautiful synagogue, with ample spaces and lots of lighting. It is important to clarify, that despite the modern appearance of its exterior, its insides are very similar to the synagogues of the twelfth century, since its walls are covered with Hebrew books. It is worth mentioning that there is a project that wants to build a Bet Itzjak community center.

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Bet-El

Sinagoga conservadora — Masorti Olami –

Comunidad Bet El de México, AC es una institución religiosa judía del Movimiento

Conservador, fundada en la Ciudad de México en 1961.
Construido en el corazón de la ciudad, en la Colonia Polanco, la Comunidad Beth El fue
formada por una sinagoga para servicios religiosos diariamente, Kabbalat Shabat y
feriados religiosos, además de salones de baile y varios eventos, aulas, auditorio, tienda
judía, área administrativa y Un cementerio cerca de la ciudad.
Además, Community Beth El lleva a cabo diversas actividades en beneficio de sus socios,
como clases de Talmud Torá, educación continua para adultos, cultural, musical, artística
y recreativa, así como un amplio programa de acción social, Hineni.

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Bet-El

Conservative Synagogue — Masorti Olami — Conservative

Community Beth-El of Mexico, AC is a Jewish religious institution of the

Conservative Movement, founded in Mexico City in 1961.Built in the heart of the

City, in the Colonia Polanco, Community Beth-El was formed by a synagogue for

religious services daily, Kabbalat Shabbat and religious holidays, in addition to

ballrooms and several events, classrooms auditorium, Jewish shop, administrative

area and a cemetery near the city.Also, Community Beth El undertakes various

activities for the benefit of its partners, such as Talmud Torah classes, continuing

adult education, cultural, musical, artistic and recreational, as well as an extensive

program of social action, Hineni.

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Irene Jaievsky –Curadora de arte en museos judío-argentina/Argentine Jewish Curator of Art in Museums

Ireneface

Curadora de arte/Art Curator

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Autobiografía:

Me gustaría contarles cómo llegué hasta esta apasionante profesión. Comencé un camino de búsqueda a través del arte. Durante varios años estudié con diferentes profesores que me enseñaron variadas técnicas de la escultura hasta llegar a estudiar Escenografía en el Instituto de Superior de Arte del teatro Colón (el más importante teatro de óperas y conciertos de Argentina y prestigioso a nivel internacional.

No existiendo todavía un estudio formal en Curaduría. Me formé con Seminarios y Becas tanto nacionales como en el exterior y mi primera oportunidad llegó!!

Realizar la primera muestra permanente para el Museo del Holocausto de Buenos Aires…Una Gran Responsabilidad!! Y que luego de 20 años está en vías de ser renovada así como el edificio…

Lo que sigue es la propia evolución y crecimiento:

Curadora Museo del Holocausto de Buenos Aires-2001 al 2005

Curadora Museo de Arquitectura y Diseño de Buenos Aires-2003 al 2007

Curadora Galería Arte y Parte-Buenos Aires-2008 al 2010

Curadora Museo de la Mujer-Buenos Aires-2010 al 2017

Curadora – Museo de la Legislatura de la Cdad. de Buenos Aires-2015 al 2017

Al mismo tiempo se presentaban situaciones que amplificaron mis horizontes como trabajar con artistas en otros espacios privados, charlas, conferencias, Congresos, Becas y Seminarios Nacionales e Internacionales, escritura de Catálogos, artículos e Investigaciones.

Becas:

Becaria Fundación Antorchas, Nahum Goldman Fellowship, Getty Foundation, Smithsonian Institute, Jewish Theological Seminary- NYC y Task Force.

Conferencias dictadas en Congresos Internacionales: 

Internacional Consejo de Museos en Viena y en México DF., en Jewish Theological Seminary NYC, en Northeastern University en Boston, en Florida International University, Universidad de Brasilia y en National Building Museum de Washington DC entre otros.

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Ahora después de 17 años de ejercicio de la profesión la idea es escribir un cuaderno práctico con algunas experiencias personales que puedan servir para la gran cantidad de alumnos y nuevos egresados dado que se han creado en estos últimos años muchos espacios para estudiar Curaduría.

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Autobiography:

I would like to tell you how I arrived at this enthralling profession. I began my search through art. For years, I studied with different professors who taught me varied techniques of sculpture, and then set design at the Superior Art Institute of the Colón Theater (the most important theater for opera and concerts in Argentina and internationally prestigious.)

At that time, a formal program of study in curating did not exist in Argentina. I learned by means of Seminars and fellowships in Argentina a well as in other countries, and my first opportunity arrived.

It was to develop the first permanent show for the Holocaust Museum in Buenos Aires. A Great Responsibility!! And 20 years later it, as well as its building is being renovated.

The positions that followed fostered my own evolution and growth

 Curator – Museum of the Holocaust of Buenos Aires

2001-2005

Curator of the Museum of Architecture and Design of Buenos Aires – 2003-2007

Curator Galería Arte + Parte, Buenos Aires, 2008-2010

Curator Museum of the Woman, Buenos Aires, 2010-2017

Curator: Museum of the Legislature of the City of Buenos Aires, 2015-2017

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During those years, situations that amplified my horizons presented themselves, such as work with artist in private spaces, talks, lectures, conferences, fellowships on the national and international level, the writing of catalogues, articles and research.

Fellowships:

Fundación Antorchas, Nahum Goldman Fellowship, Getty Foundation, Smithsonian Institute, Jewish Theological Seminary- NYC y Task Force. 

Lectures given at International Conferences:

International Council of Museum  Vienna and Mexico DF, Jewish Theological Seminary NYC Northeastern University-Boston, Florida International University, University of Brasilia and the  National Building Museum de Washington DC.

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Now, after 17 years of professional work, my idea is to write a practical workbook with personal experiences that would help the great number of students and new graduates in the last few years many ways of studying Curatorship.

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La Curaduría

La curaduría es una manera de conectar fluidamente dos ámbitos que parecen ajenos entre si: la labor de los artistas visuales y las instituciones o espacios en donde se muestran sus obras y se contactan con su público. Es un medio que facilita y reinterpreta ambas necesidades.

Como curadora de arte especializada en museos mi misión siempre fue la de darle visibilidad a las obras de artistas visuales (no importando su técnica) que pudiesen expresar con imágenes profundos pensamientos o sentimientos superando el límite de la  palabra Y es con la gestión que se llevan a cabo las exhibiciones tanto nacionales como internacionales: con la búsqueda del artista/de los artistas y sus obras, la elección del espacio, el diseño de montaje, color y luces, los textos que acompañan la muestra, el diseño del catálogo, el flyer de difusión, entre otras cosas…y todo esto con el sostén que la producción del espacio/institución provee para tal fin.

Quisiera rescatar mi última investigación sobre la cual me he expresado en el congreso de la Asociación de Estudios Judío-Latinoamericanos (LAJSA) in Miami (2015) Trató de los trabajos y conceptos que los artistas visuales contemporáneos judeo-argentinos han trabajado. He tenido el privilegio de haber trabajado con la mayoría.

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Curatorship

Curatorship is a way to connect fluidly two fields that seem to be very different: the work of visual artists and the institutions or spaces in which they show their works and make contact with their public,

It is a medium that facilitates and reinterprets both necessities.

As a curator of specialized art in museums, mi mission was to give visibility  to the artists, no matter their techniques, that could express with profound images, thoughts of feelings, that go beyond the limit of the word. And it is the process that puts together exhibitions, be they local or international: with the search of the artist(s) and their work, the choice of the space, the design of the set-up, color and lights, the texts that accompany the exhibition the flyer for diffusion, among other things. . . and all this with the support the space or institution provides toward that end.

I’d like to point out my most recent research paper presented at the Conference of the Latin American Jewish Studies Organization (LAJSA) in Miami in 2015. The paper dealt with the works and concepts that contemporary Argentine-Jewish artists have produced. I have had the privilege to have worked with the majority of them.

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Unos ejemplos de la curaduría de Irene Jaievsky/  Some examples of the curatorship of Irene Jaievsky

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Irenelecture

Como coradura del Museo de la Mujer /As curator of the Museum of the Woman

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Como Curadora Independiente. Exhibición basada en la investigación realizada por un equipo interdisciplinario especialmente organizado por las autoridades del Museo Judío sobre la Historia de los judíos en Argentina-Museo Judío de Buenos Aires -2013-

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As Independent Curator. Exhibition based on research carried out by and interdisciplinary team, specially organized by the directors of the Jewish Museum that dealt with the history of the Jews in Argentina. Jewish Museum, Buenos Aires, 2015.

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Arch

Creación y Organización del nuevo Museo de la Legislatura de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Vista parcial del área histórico-arquitectónico, 2015-

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As Curator of Creation and Organization of the new  Museum of the Legislature of the city of Buenos Aires. Partial view of the historical-architectural area, 2015-

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Irene HOLOCAUST

Como ex-curadora del Museo del Holocausto de Buenos Aires y Curadora del Museo de la Mujer de Argentina fui convocada por la embajada de Canadá para organizar una muestra colectiva dedicada a la mujer judía-Tiferet- Artistas invitadas Susana Beibe, Jazmine Bakalarz, Hilda Catz  entre otras- Museo del Holocausto de Buenos Aires -2013-

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As curator of the Museum of the Holocaust of Buenos Aires and as Curator of the Museum of the Woman of Argentina, I was invited by the Embassy of Canada to organize a group show dedicated to the Jewish Woman-Tiferet. -Tiferet- Invited artists included Susana Beibe, Jazmine Bakalarz, Hilda Catz and others. – Museum of the Holocaust, de Buenos Aires, 2013.

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Irene Chelnitz

Sinagoga de Chemnitz.-Alemania-Como Curadora del Museo de Arquitectura y Diseño se presentó la muestra de Alfred Jacoby: Espacios Sacros. Nuevas sinagogas alemanas-Este arquitecto judío construyó: 15 sinagogas en los lugares en donde fueron destruidas por los nazis  las anteriores existentes. Luego se la presentó en el Seminario Rabínico de Buenos Aires-2006.

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Synagogue of Chemnitz, Germany, As Curator of the Museum of Architecture and Design, I directed an exhibition of the work of Alfred Jacobu: Sacred Spaces: New German Synagogues.by this Jewish architect who built 15 synagogues, in the original places. that were destroyed by the Nazis. The exhibit was also shown at the Rabbinical Seminary of Buenos Aires, 2006

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Instalación del Totem canadiense en la Plaza Canadá de la ciudad de Buenos Aires-zona Retiro- 2012- Durante dos años fui la curadora de este proyecto que realizó  el artista Kwawitl Stan Hunt en la zona de Vancouver junto con la embajada argentina de Canadá y el Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

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Installation of the Canadian Totem in the Canada Plaza of the Retiro area of Buenos Aires, 2012. For two years, I was the curator of this project created by the artist Kwawitl Stan Hunt of Vancouver. The project was sponsored jointly by the Canadian Embassy in Argentina and the Government of the City of Buenos Aires.

 

 

 

Bernardo Kordon (1915-2002) — Escritor judio-argentino/Argentine Jewish Writer — “La Biblia y yo”/ “The Bible and I”

 

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Bernardo Kor

Bernardo Kordon, escritor y periodista argentino,  nació  1915 en Buenos Aires y falleció en Santiago de Chile en 2002. Es considerado como uno de los autores más importantes e influyentes de la narrativa argentina del siglo XX y se le considera parte de la “Generación del 50”. Kordon publicó tanto novela como relato y libro de viajes, siendo muy conocido por sus crónicas en países de América, Europa y Asia. Sus obras tienen un marcado todo realista que muestra las inquietudes de la población y el costumbrismo, con influencia de autores norteamericanos y del cine, sus novelas tienen un enfoque abierto y se centra en la vida de la gente corriente en ambientes marginales y suburbanos. Publicó más de veinte obras a lo largo de su vida y seis de ellas se han llevado al cine. Entre sus obras más destacadas se encuentran: La Vuelta de Rocha. Brochazos y Relatos Porteños (1936), Un horizonte de cemento (1940), Seiscientos millones y uno (1958), Vencedores y vencidos (1965), Historias de sobrevivientes (1983), entre muchas otras. En 1969 se vio obligado a exiliarse de Argentina a Chile por motivos políticos, allí se casó con la chilena Marina López. En 1983 recibió el Premio Municipal y en 1984 recibió el prestigioso Premio  Konex.

Adaptado de Lecturalia

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Bernardo Kordon, Argentine writer and journalist, was born in 1915 in Buenos Aires and died in Santiago de Chile in 2002. He is considered one of the most important and influential authors of the twentieth century Argentine narrative and is considered part of the “Generation of the Fifties”. Kordon published both novels and stories and travel books. He was well known for his chronicles in countries of America, Europe and Asia. His works have a realistic mark that shows the concerns of the population and costumbrismo, with influence of American authors and cinema, his novels have an open approach and focuses on the lives of ordinary people in marginal and suburban environments. He published more than twenty works throughout his life and six of them have taken to the cinema. Among his most outstanding works are: La Vuelta de Rocha. Brochazos y Relatos Porteños (1936), Un horizonte de cemento (1940), Seiscientos millones y uno (1958), Vencedores y vencidos (1965), Historias de sobrevivientes (1983). En 1969, he was obliged to go into exile from Argentina to Chile for political reasons, There he married the  a Marina López, a Chilean. En 1983, he received the Municipal Prize and in 1984, the prestigious Konex Prize.

Adaptado de Lecturalia

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“La Biblia y yo”

Confieso que de la Biblia tuve poco tránsito y ninguna permanencia. Sin duda, la aprecié, dada mi condición de judío. En tal sentido y nunca traté de ocultarlo. Esa permanencia deriva de mi abuelo materno, que se llamó Isaac Piterbarg. Era cantor de sinagoga y oir ese motivo fue invitado a cantar en Buenos Aires. Se embarcó en compañía de familiares hasta este Río de la Plata donde nunca vio el mejor ápice de plata, ni de oro (hubiera sido un consuelo), Aquí don Isaac sufrió varios contratiempos y algunas satisfacciones;iletrado entre éstas seguramente figuraron mostrarme la Biblia, la recuerdo bien porque era una edición ilustrada que puso en mis manos, hecho muy importante dada mi condición circunstancial de niño iletrado. Con esa Biblia mi abuelo me marcó; el libro señalaba el camino de mi pueblo y señalaba mi propio camino. Mi abuelo me marcó el camino de arte. Su canto, escuchado casualmente a los cinco años, marcó mi destino. Nunca olvidé el canto de mi abuelo Isaac.

Debo aclarar que mi padre era “progresista”, seguramente de socialista. Por eso no me inició en la religión en costumbres ni idiomas judíos. A mi hermano, por ejemplo, lo gratificaron con el nombre de Jean Juarès. Pero un día con mis padres, porque allí cantaba mi abuelo. Nunca pude olvidar su canción, algo funebre… un kadish.

A mi alrededor los niños continuaron sus juegos, pero la impresión que a mí me produjo el canto de mi abuelo fue tremenda. Vuelvo a sentir lo mismo cuando escucho el cante-jondo o los actores cantores hacen sentir sus desgarradas melopeas en las óperas chinas. Desde el comienzo, quiero decir desde ese canto de mi abuelo escuchado a los cuatro o cinco años, el hedonismo nada tiene que ver conmigo. Lo que me desgarra, o me estremece, no lo sentía y no lo siento como arte.

No olvidé el ambiente de casarón del Paisaje del Carmen donde fue trasplantado mi abuelo y toda su familia, lo más parecido a un patio de sainete de Vacarezza.

A los inmigrantes los costaba dejar las características traídas de todo el mundo, hasta formar esa mezcla que comienza a clarificarse medio siglo después. Ya no era el mundo estático entre idn y goim  de Ucrania, sino que este supuesto nuevo mundo consistía en un hervidero de razas y naciones que convertían a todos los inmigrantes en especies de judíos, que si no se peleaban abiertamente, al menos se despreciaban  y ridiculizaban mutuamente.

En especial el idioma confundía a mi abuelo. “Aquí todo se dice lo mismo” -reflexionaba-. “Esto”- señalaba su cara – “es caro, y es caro lo que no es barato, y también es caro el carro que transitaba la calle”. Pero esto no me reía, nunca me reí de esas dificultades idiomáticas de los inmigrantes; por el contrario, me provocan lástima y solidaridad.

Por supuesto a mi abuelo no lo consideraba un extranjero. En especial su canto era tan profundo y misterioso como nuestro pasado y nuestro porvenir. Su canto era yo mismo. En verdad aspiro a que mi pobre literatura resulte algo parecido al canto de mi abuelo.

A mi abuelo lo entendí cabalmente en ese gesto de ensoñación que acompañaba sus cánticos y plegarias. En su contagioso estado de ensoñación aprendí a sentirme judío. Mi abuelo soñaba con la gloria de su religión y también soñaba en convertirse en un próspero comerciante. Un buen día concretó el sueño de instalar una taller de confección ojalillos de camisas de seda. Uno de mis tíos, aún niño, fue el encargado de entregar la mercadería elaborada. Salió mi tío Elías con su paqueton de camisas de seda y una cuadra después lo detuvo un tipo: “Querés pibe ganarte veinte guitas? Aquí están: te los pago adelantado. Solamente tenés que subir al segundo piso y le entregás esta carta a esa mujer que se llama Tita, así como dice el sobre. Ah, me olvidaba de decirte que del paquete no te preocupés, te lo cuido yo”. La tal Tita no vivía ni en el segundo piso ni en ningún otro piso. Cuando mi tío Elías volvió a la calle tampoco encontró el hombre del recado, y menos el paquete de camisas de seda. Hubo que pagarlas al fabricante, sin contar del descrédito del confeccionista que comienza dejándose robar la mercadería. Contratiempo que acentuó la dedicación de mi abuelo a sus cánticos. Los mejores jeremiadas no son dictadas por el ritual, sino por la vida.

En realidad, la Biblia la conocí por mi abuelo y la viví en su canto. No estudié, debo confesar que tuve que conformarme con estudiar Buenos Aires. Lo que no ocurrió con mi abuelo, hablo la lengua de Buenos Aires, inclusive la escribo. Ya lo confesé  en un cuento: al hablar su idioma trato de disimular mi condición de extranjero. Extranjero por identificación con mi abuelo. Escribo pero debo decir como mi abuelo: todo se dice el mismo.

Cuando su impronta y sus hijos crecieron, mi viejo se mudó al caserón de la calle Potosí, al lado de los fondos del Hotel Italiano. En el jardín habían varias palmeras y un par de rejas: allí me mantuve quieto como un pequeño preso, mirando la calle todo el día, desde entonces mi ocupación favorita. Después comenzaron mis peregrinaciones por el barrio, por la ciudad, y de algún modo Buenos Aires fue la Biblia soñado por mi abuelo Isaac Piterbarg.

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“The Bible and I”

I confess that with the Bible, I had little traffic and no continuity.  Without doubt, I appreciated it, give my condition as a Jew. In that sense, I never tried to hide it. That permanent condition derives from my maternal grandfather, named Isaac Piterberg. He was a synagogue cantor, and for that reason, he was invited to sing in Buenos Aires. He embarked the company of relatives until this Río de la Plata, where he never saw a speck of silver nor of gold (it would have been a consolation. Here don Isaac suffered several setbacks and some satisfactions. My illiteracy, among these, surely figured in showing me the Bible, I remember it well because it was an illustrated edition that he put in my hands, made very important given my condition circumstantial of being and illiterate child. With this Bible, my grandfather marked me; the book signaled the path of my people and it signaled my own path. His singing, casually heard at five years old, marked my destiny. I will never forget the chanting of my grandfather Isaac.

I should make it    clear that my father was a “progressive,’ surely a socialist. For that reason, he didn’t initiate me in the Jewish religion, customs or languages. They rewarded my brother, for example, with the name Jean Juarès, the socialist leader. But one day, I went with my parents to the synagogue because my grandfather was singing there. I never could forget his song, something funereal. . . a Kaddish.

Around me, the children continued playing their games, but the impression that my grandfather’s singing had on me was enormous. I felt the same way when I heard the cante-jondo or when the actors and singers made their licentious intonations feel in the Chinese operas. From the beginning, I want to say that this chanting of my grandfather, heard at four of five years old, with me, had nothing to do with hedonism.

I can’t forget the ambiance of the large house on the Plaza del Carmen where my grandfather and his entire family was transplanted. It was more like a courtyard for comic sketches in Vacarezza.

It was difficult for the immigrants to leave behind the characteristics brought from around the world, until forming a that mixture that began to be clarified a half century later. It was no longer the static world between idn and goim, Jews and non-Jews of the Ukraine, but rather this supposed new world consisted in a beehive of races and nations that were converted all immigrants in species of Jews, who, if they didn’t fight openly, least they looked down upon and ridiculed each other.

The language especially confused my grandfather. “Here everything is said the same way, he reflected: there are sheeps in the fields. there are sheeps on the river, and if something is not expensive it’s sheep.” But this didn’t make me laugh; I never laughed at the linguistic difficulty of the immigrants; on the contrary, it provoked compassion and solidarity in me.

Of course, my grandfather wasn’t considered to be a foreigner. Especially, his singing was so profound and mysterious as our past and our future. His singing was me myself. Truthfully, I aspire that my poor literature becomes something like the singing of my grandfather.

My grandfather understood precisely that gesture of dreaminess that accompanied his chants and prayers. In his contagious dream-like state, I learned to feel myself to be a Jew. My grandfather dreamed about the glory of his religion, and he also dreamed about becoming a prosperous merchant. One day, he realized his dream of setting up a workshop for the manufacturing of small button holes for silk shirts. One of my uncles, still a child, was put in charge of delivering the completed merchandise, My Uncle Elías left with his large package of silk shirts, and a block later, a guy stopped him: “Kid, do you want to earn twenty pesos? Here they are: I’ll pay them to you in advance. All you have to do is go up to the second floor and deliver this this letter to that woman named Tita, as it says on the envelope. Ah, I forgot to tell you not to worry about the package, I’ll look after it for you.” Such a Tita didn’t live on the second floor nor in any other floor. When my uncle Elías returned to the street he didn’t find the man with the message either, and even less the package of silk shirts. It was necessary to pay the manufacturer, without speaking of the loss of trust in the seamstress who began allowing the merchandise to be stolen. Setbacks that accentuated my grandfather’s dedication to his songs. The best Jeremiads and not dictated by ritual, but by life.

In truth, I knew the Bible through my grandfather and I lived it in his singing. I didn’t study; I have to confess that I had to be content with studying Buenos Aires. As didn’t happen to my grandfather, I speak the language of Buenos Aires, I even write it. I already confessed this in a short-story: by speaking its language, I try to dissimulate my condition as a foreigner. Foreigner by identification with my grandfather. I write, but I should say like my grandfather: everything is said the same way.

When his reputation and his children were grown, my old man moved to the large house on Potosí Street, next to the rear section of the Italian Hospital. In the garden, there were several palms and a pair of railings: there I kept myself quiet like a small prisoner, looking at the street all day long, since then my favorite occupation. Later, my peregrinations through the neighborhood, through the city, and in some way, Buenos Aires was the Bible dreamt by my grandfather Isaac Piterberg.

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Algunos de los libros de Bernardo Kordon/                                                Some of Bernardo Kordon’s Books

 

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Yanina Rovinski — Escritora judío-costarricense/Costa Rican Jewish Writer — “Paz y Amor”/”Peace and Love”

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Yanina Rovinski

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Nací en Costa Rica en 1960, empecé en una escuela judía (Instituto dr. Jaim Weisman) pero terminé en el liceo franco costarricense después de 3 años en París en el lycée Montaigne. Fui a la universidad de Costa Rica donde me gradué en química y después de unos años como química textil me fui a Estados Unidos a hacer una maestría en periodismo con énfasis en ciencias.

A mi regreso a Costa Rica empecé a trabajar para un organismo internacional, la UICN (Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza), creando su departamento de comunicaciones para Centroamérica. Posteriormente trabajé para el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores en la embajada de Costa Rica en Francia y en la Unesco. Desde que regresé vivo en la costa Pacífica, en Punta Leona, y me dedico a la traducción y a dar clases de temas ambientales en ICDS (International Center for Development Studies) in San José,

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I was born in Costa Rica in 1960, I began in a Jewish School (Chaim Weitzman Institute,) but I finished in the Franco-Costa Rican High School, after three years in the Lycée Montaigne in Paris. I attended the University of Costa Rica where I graduated in Chemistry, and after a few years as a textile chemist, I went to the United States to do a Masters in Journalism with an emphasis on the sciences.

On my return to Costa Rica, I began to work for an International Organization, the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature), creating its department of communications in Central America. Later, I worked for the Foreign Relations Ministry in the Embassy of Costa Rica in France and for UNESCO. Since I returned, I live on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, in Punta Leona, and I dedicate myself to doing translation and to giving classes on environmental themes at the ICDS (International Center for Development Studies) in San José,

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Antes de este capítulo de Una montaña de aserrín, el testimonio trata de la vida de Sarita Giberstein, una niña judía que pasó su infancia de 5 a 10 años de edad durante la ocupación de Polonia de los Nazis por la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Vivía con un miedo constante. Con sus padres, Sarita sobrevivió el horror del Gueto de Varsovia, el levantamiento judía y la destrucción completa de la zona por los nazis. Luego, separada de sus padres, la trasladaban de un escondite ofrecido por polacos comprensivos a otros lugares “más seguros” hasta que llegara en los bosques. Una vez se escondió de un patrol nazi porque estaba cubierta de “un montón de aserrín”.

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Coming before this chapter of Una montaña de asserin, a heap of sawdust, this              testament presents the life of Sarita Giberstein, a Jewish girl who spent her childhood, from five to ten years old, during the occupation of Poland by the Nazis durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. She lived in constant fear. With her parents, Sarita survived the horror of the Warsaw Ghetto, the Jewish Uprising and the complete destruction of the zone by the Nazis, Then, separated from her parents, she was moved from one hiding place to another “safer place” by supportive Poles, until she reached the edge of the forest. On one occasion, covered by a heap of sawdust. Sarita successfully hid from a Nazi patrol.

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“Paz y amor” celebra no solamente la sobrevivencia de Sarita y su familia, sino la recepción que recibieron de los judío costarricenses y la solidaridad de esa comunidad. Trata de la adaptación de Sarita a su vida nueva en Costa Rica. También, es una historia de amor entre Samuel Rovinski que llegará a ser un escritor importante y su querida Sarita.

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“Paz y amor”

Deslumbrado por las luces de Nueva York, los Giberstein intentaron quedarse a vivir en Estados Unidos, pero no obtuvieron los permisos necesarios, así que finalmente regresaron a Costa Rica.

La de Costa Rica era una comunidad muy solidaria. Cuando llegaron judíos que habían sobrevivido la guerra y exterminación nazi, iban delegaciones a recibirlos y les ayudaron en sus primeros pasos. Los Giberstein pasaron los primeros días donde los Yankelewicz, que tenían una casa grande situada en el Paseo Colón, hasta que consiguieron mudarse justo al lado de los Rovinski, tal y como habían vivido en el pasado. Eran dos casas gemelas, con patios separados por las latas de zinc, que los jóvenes quitaron durante la revolución del 48 para poder verse sin salir a la calle. El destino parecía decidido a volverlos a juntar.

El en relato autobiográfico “Cuarto Creciente”, mi padre describe la llegada de la adolescente que le robó el corazón:

      “No era preciso que nadie me la señalara: la había identificado, aun sin conocerla. Sus largas trenzas le caían por delante, bastante más debajo de la cintura, enmarcado sus cara ovalada, de finos rasgos, que parecía esculpida por un meticuloso artista; boca no muy ancha, algo sensual, dejaba entrever una sonrisa amable y franca. . .”

     “Con Samuel el enamoramiento fue inmediato,” cuenta por su lado Sarita, su primer recuerdo realmente placentera. “No teníamos idioma para comunicarnos. Samuel trataba de hablar Yiddish y era desastroso, nos hacía reír por que decía cosas sin sentido, usaba palabras que se parecían a lo que quería decir, pero significaban totalmente otra cosa.”

De estos primeros intentos de comunicación salió el nombre cariñoso con que mi padre siempre se dirigía a mi madre el futuro: Shura, un nombre que representa su amor por ella. Apenas se instalaron en su casa junto a los Rovinski, los Giberstein consiguieron una maestra para que los niños aprendieran español, y pudieron entrar a la escuela y el colegio.

      “Yo tuve que hacer un examen en la escuela República de Chile para que me dieran el certificado del sexto grado. A los seis meses de haber llegado, lo hice y entré al Colegio de Señoritas, a primer año.”

Rosita y Jerzyck entraron también a la escuela y posteriormente, mi tía estudiaría también en el Colegio de Señoritas, Jerzyck en el Liceo de Costa Rica.

Excelente alumna, Sarita no tuvo ninguna dificultad en convertirse en una de las mejores estudiantes del colegio. Cuando le anunciaron, en su primer año de estudios, que le había otorgado el Cuadro de Honor, ella no sabía de qué se trataba, pero aun así mantuvo durante los cinco años que  pasó el colegio, en los que fue la favorita de las maestras y compañeras, y presidente de su clase por varios años. Por tener el mejor promedio durante toda la historia académica, el último año le entregaron el estandarte del colegio, que llevaba con dignidad en todos los desfiles y actividades estudiantiles.

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Samuel hervía de orgullo por su hermosa e inteligente novia. Él, por su lado, asistía al Liceo de Costa Rica y había pasado los años por la idea del sufrimiento de aquellos judíos víctimas de la barbarie nazi. Su propia experiencia con el antisemitismo había empezado en el primer grado de la escuela, cuando una pandilla de matoncillos lo había molido a golpes por su apellido. Enfrentado a la injusticia y la cobardía del grupo, Samuel había retado individualmente a cada miembro de la pandilla, hasta después del quinto contrincante vapuleado, lo había aceptado plenamente o al menos nunca lo volvieron a atacar. El levantamiento del Gueto de Varsovia lo había inspirado a escribir una novela infantil, que expresaba su admiración de aquellos valientes que, en medio de la barbarie, habían luchado por su libertad. La novela quedó sin terminar, y su admiración se volcó sobre la joven brillante, hermosa y valiente que acababa de reencontrar

Para la familia Giberstein, la vida por fin empezó a normalizarse. León y Dora montaron una pequeña fábrica de camisas, La Mercury, que les permitió ganarse la vida y sacar adelante a sus hijos. Al tiempo, también Zoñek, el hermano de Dora y su esposa Regina se vinieron a vivir en Costa Rica. Zoñek se reunió con su hermana y su cuñado en la fábrica, y los tres trabajaron ahí hasta sus últimos días. Zoñek y Regina tuvieron dos hijos Gilbert y José Félix, que les darían muchas alegrías y varios nietos.

Para Sarita, el polaco fue rápidamente olvidado, porque en la comunidad judía costarricense había un gran odio hacia los polacos, que en su mayoría habían colaborado de buena gana con los nazis, a pesar de raras excepciones de gente solidaria. “En Costa Rica me sentía mal hablando polaco, y eso ayudó a que aprendiera rapidísimo el español.”

Samuel no quiso perder un minuto, y apenas empezaban a entenderse en español, invitó al cine a la hermosa adolescente de trece años. “Mi mamá estaba con el pelo parado, pero Dinche la convenció, y así fuimos. Para mí era toda una aventura, porque solo una vez había ido al cine en Varsovia.”

La comunidad judía costarricense organizaba actividades para los jóvenes durante los fines de semana. Ahí bailaron y se divertían, y Sarita, que apenas estaba redescubriendo la alegría, disfrutaba mucho de esas actividades. Samuel, por su lado, era un adolescente serio que prefería quedarse en su cuarto oyendo la música clásica, pero aprendió a bailar para pasar más tiempo con su novia. Su ardiente pasión reclamaba la atención absoluta y exclusiva de la joven, la que generó entre ellos inesperadas tensiones. Para Sarita, todo era nuevo e intrigante: la retreta en el Parque Central, la tanda de siete los domingos, las excursiones al campo con grupos de jóvenes. Le atraía esa alegría hasta ahora desconocida. Samuel que era mucho más reservado, quería pasar con ella todo el tiempo podía, y hacía lo que podía por complacerla participando en esas actividades. Sarita era una joven inteligente, con una fuerte personalidad, que después de haber vivido toda su infancia no iba a aceptar que la privaran de su libertad, y le hizo entender a su enamorado que quería vivir una juventud tranquila, alegre y normal. A él le interesaban la lectura y el cine. Aprendía tocar el violín y jugaba al básquet, era un estudiante destacado, interesado en el bienestar de sus compañeros, y se convirtió  muy pronto en líder estudiantil y presidente del Liceo. A pesar de las diferencias de carácter y preferencias, ambos jóvenes se fueron acoplando hasta hacerse inseparables.

El cortejo duró siete años. Mientras terminaban el colegio y empezaban sus estudios universitarios. Samuel se fue a México para estudiar ingeniería cuando Sarita aún estaba en el cuarto año del colegio. A pesar de sus inclinaciones literarias, él había elegido una carrera que le permitiera ganarse la vida y mantener una familia. Desde México, le escribía cartas de amor a su Shura, en las que vertía su naciente talento literario. A partir de ese momento, empezó entre ellos la etapa de amores epistolares. Durante cuatro años, intercambian cartas donde se contaban sus vidas y compartían sus sueños. Ambos conservaron celosamente esas cartas, testigo  de su amor ejemplar.

Al terminar el colegio, Sarita ingresó a la Universidad de Costa Rica para estudiar filosofía y letras. Mientras tanto, Samuel seguía estudiando con dedicación y pasaba su tiempo libre jugando al básquet, aunque había abandonado el estudio del violín después de dejarlo perdido en un taxi. En realidad, reconocía que, a pesar de su amor por la música, nunca sería un virtuoso, y prefería escuchar a los grandes maestros antes que reproducir a duras penas los sonidos en su violín. Cuando estaba a graduarse de ingeniero, en el penúltimo año, Samuel no pudo esperar más y pidió la mano de su amada novia.

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Sarita y Samuel en el Teatro Nacional, muchos años después

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Samuel Rovinski – Post

Un montón

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“Peace and Love’”celebrates not only the survival of Sarita and her family, but also the reception they received by the Costa Rican Jews and the solidarity of that community. It deals with Sarita’s adaptation to her new life en Costa Rica. Also, it is adolescent love story between Samuel Rovinski, who would become an important writer, and his beloved Sarita.

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“Peace and Love”

Dazzled by the lights of New York, the Gibersteins intended to stay and live in the United States, but they couldn’t obtain the necessary permits, so they finally returned to Costa Rica.

     “We came in a plane that landed at La Sabana airport, and there an entire delegation of people was waiting for us, including Samuel, who was a very tall and very handsome boy.”

The Jewish community of Costa Rica was very caring. When Jews arrived, who had survived the war and the Nazi extermination, delegations went to welcome them and help them in their first steps. The Gibersteins spent their first days with the Yankelewicz family, who had a large house, located on the Paseo Colón, until they were able to move right next to the Rovinskis, just as they had lived in the past. They were two twin houses, with patios separated by zinc plates, that the young people took away during the revolution of ’48 so they could see each other without going out on the street. Destiny seemed to have decided to bring the two families together again.

In the autobiographical story “First Crescent,” my father described the arrival of the adolescent that stole his heart:

“It wasn’t necessary for anyone to point her out: I had identified her, even without knowing her. Her long braids fell forward, well beyond her waist, framing her oval facce, of fine features, that seemed to be sculpted by a meticulous artist, no so wide a mouth, a bit sensual, let show a kind and frank smile. . .

With Samuel, it was love at first sight,” For her part, Sarita tells of her first really pleasant memory. “We didn’t have a language in which we could communicate. Samuel tried to speak Yiddish, and it was disastrous , it made us laugh because he said senseless things, he used words that were close to what he wanted to say, but they meant something completely different.”

From these first attempts at communication, came out the affectionate that my father always called my mother in the future: Shura, a name that showed his love for her.

They had had barely moved into their house next to the Rovinskis, the Gibersteins  hired a teacher so that the children would learn Spanish and enter school and high school.

     “I had to take an exam at the Republic of Chile School so that they give me a sixth-grade certificate. Six months after having arrived, I took it and I entered the first year at the Colegio de Señoritas.”

Rosita and Jerzyck also went to school, and later on, my aunt would also study in the Colegio de Señoritas, Jerzyk in the Liceo de Costa Rica.

An excellent student, Sarita had no difficulty in becoming one of the best students in the high school. When the announced to her, in her first year of study, that they had awarded her the Honor Award; she didn’t what it meant, but even so, she kept up in that way during the five years she spent at the high school, during which she was the favorite of the teachers and students and was president of her class for several years. For having the highest average in the history of the school, they entrusted her with the school banner, that she carried with dignity in all the parades and student activities.

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Samuel was so proud of his beautiful and intelligent girlfriend, He attended the Liceo de Costa Rica and he had spent the years thinking about the suffering of those Jews who were victims of the Nazi barbarity. His own experience with anti-Semitism had begun in the first grade of school, when a band of young punk had beaten him up because of his last name. Confronting the injustice and the cowardliness of the group, Samuel had challenged individually each member of the group, until after the fifth beat up opponent, they had fully accepted him or at least they never attacked him again. The Uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto had inspired him to write a children’s book , that expressed his admiration for those valiant people, who, in the midst of the barbarity, had fought for their liberty. The novel was never finished, and his admiration turned toward the brilliant, beautiful and brave young woman that he had just come to meet again.

For the Giberstein family, life finally began to normalize. León and Dora set up a small shirt factory, The Mercury, that allowed them to earn a living and provide for their children ahead. At the same time, Zoñek, Dora’s brother and his wife Regina joined his sister and brother-in-law, and the three of the worked there for the rest of their lives. Zoñek and Regina had two sons, Gilbert and José Félix, who would give them much happiness and several grandchildren.

For Sarita, Polish was rapidly forgotten, because the Jewish community of Costa Rica had an intense hatred for the Poles, the majority of whom had enthusiastically  collaborated with the Nazis, with only the rare exceptions of people who supported the Jews.

Samuel didn’t want to lose a minute, and when they had hardly begun to communicate in Spanish, he invited the beautiful thirteen-year-old to go to the movies. “It was hair-raising for my mother was  but Dinche convinced her, and so we went. For me, it was quite an adventure, because only once had I gone to the movies in Warsaw.”

The Costa Rican Jewish community organized activities for the young people during the weekends; There they danced and had fun, and Sarita who was just beginning rediscover happiness, greatly enjoyed these activities. Samuel, on the other hand, was a serious adolescent who preferred to stay in his room listening to classical music, but he learned to dance so that he could spend more time with his girlfriend. His ardent passion demanded the absolute and exclusive attention of the girl, which generated unexpected tensions between them. For Sarita, everything was new and fascinating: the public concert in the Parque Central, the seven o’clock show at the movies on Sundays, the excursions to the countryside with groups of young people. This happiness, until now unknown, attracted her.

Samuel was much more reserved, wanted to spend as much time with her as he could, and he did what he could to please her, by participating in those activities. Sarita was an intelligent girl, with a strong personality, who, after having lived hidden all of her childhood, wasn’t going to allow that she be deprived of her freedom, and she made it clear to her boyfriend that she wanted to live a tranquil, happy and normal youth.

He was interested in reading and the movies. He learned to play the violin and play basketball, was an outstanding student, interested in the well-being of his companions, and soon he became a student leader and president of the Liceo. In spite of their differences in character, both young people became closer until they became inseparable.

The courtship lasted seven years. While they were finishing high school and commencing their university studies, Samuel went to Mexico to study engineering, when Sarita was still in her fourth year of high school. Despite his literary inclinations, he had chosen a career that would allow him to earn a living and support a family.

From Mexico, he wrote love letters to his Shura, into which he poured his nescient literary talent. From that moment, there began between them the stage of epistolary love. During four years, they interchanged letters in which the told of their lives  and shared their dreams. Each of them kept those letters jealously, a testament to their exemplary love.

On completing high school, Sarita enrolled in the Universidad of Costa Rica to study liberal arts. Meanwhile, Samuel continued studying with dedication and spent his free time playing basketball, although he had abandoned the study of the violin, after leaving it in a taxi. In reality, he recognized that, in spite of his love for music, he would never be a virtuoso, and he preferred to listen to the great masters, rather than reproducing with great difficulty the sounds on his violin. When he was about to graduate as an engineer, in the next to last year, Samuel could wait no longer, and asked for the hand of his beloved girlfriend.

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 Sarita and Samuel in the National Theater, many years later

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Samuel Rovinski – Post

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Museos judíos de América Latina/ Museus judaicos de America Latina/ Jewish museums of Latin America

Visite online a los museos judíos de América:

Visite online os museus judaicos de America Latina:

Visit online the Jewish Museums of Latin America:

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Museo Judío de Buenos Aires

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En 2010, Con la artista visual Perla Bajder, la curadura Irene Jaievsky y Steve Sadow hicimos una exhibición de libros de artista, compuestos de poesía, arte de poetas y artistas judío-latinoamericanos en el Museo Judío de Buenos Aires. Los libros de artist incluyen biografías de todos los participantes y traducciones de los poemas al inglés por Stephen A. Sadow y J. Kates. Para ver los libros de artista

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In 2010, the artist Perla Bajder, la curadura Irene Jaievsky y Steve Sadow put on an exhibition of artist books, composed of poetry and art by Latin American Jewish poets, artists at the Jewish Museum of Buenos Aires.  The show included biographies of all the participants and the poems translated into English by Stephen A. Sadow and J. Kates.     To see the Artist’s Books

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Museo del Holocausto de Buenos Aires/Holocaust Museum of Buenos Aires

Museo del Holocausto

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Museu judaico de São Paulo/Jewish Museum of São Paulo

São Paulo

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Museu Judaico Do Rio de Janeiro/Jewish Museum of Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro

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Museo Judío Tuve Maizel de la Ciudad de México — Museo Histórico Judío y del Holocausto/Tuve Maizel Jewish Museum of Mexico City — Museum of Jewish History and of the Holocaust

Céxico

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Museo Interactivo de Chile

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Museo judío del Perú/Jewish Museum of Peru

Perú

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Museo de la Shoá del Uruguay/                                Holocaust Museum of Uruguay

Uruguay

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Museo judío del Paraguay/Jewish Museum of Paraguay

Paraguay

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Museo de la Comunidad Judío de Costa Rica/Museum of the Jewish Community of Costa Rica

Costa Rica

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Museo Sefardí de Caracas “Morris E. Curiel”/”Morris E. Curiel” Sephardic Museum of Venezuela

Museo Sefardí – Caracas, Venezuela

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Sinagoga Justo Sierra 71, restaurada en México, D.F./The Restored Justo Sierra 71 Synagogue in Mexico City — Un monumento histórico, social y religioso — An historic, social and religious monument

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El Poetal/The original main entrance

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Inaugurado en 1941 bajo el nombre Nidje Israel, ahora Sinagoga Justo Sierra fue construido por los primeros inmigrantes ashkenazim. Esta comunidad, integrada por judíos provenientes de Europa del Este, se asentó en la antigua Merced.y eligió este edificio para hacer sus oraciones y eventos sociales. De estilo neocolonial, el lugar tiene una fachada interna y otra que da a Justo Sierra. El esplendor de la sinagoga no siempre fue como ahora. Luego de que los ashkenazim se mudaran a otros barrios de la ciudad, el lugar quedó en desuso por varias décadas. En 2010 fue restaurado y se abrieron sus puertas al público con el objetivo de dar a conocer la cultura judía a curiosos y extraños. Actualmente se ofrecen visitas guiadas. También se permite la entrada a quien quiera disfrutar el espacio en solitario. En la planta baja del edificio principal hay fotografías de las fiestas que se ofrecían en la década de los cuarenta y hasta una réplica del menú, que deja ver el sincretismo de una comunidad que integró sus raíces al país anfitrión. Es en el segundo nivel donde está el espacio de oración para ser apreciado.

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Inaugurated in 1941, und the name Nijde Israel, now Justo Sierra Synagogue, was constructed by the first Ashkenazi immigrants. This community, made up of Jews from Eastern Europe, is located in the old Merced neighborhood. They chose this building for saying their prayers and for social events. Of Neo-Colonial style, the synagogue has an internal facade and one that faces Justo Sierra Street. The splendor of the synagogue was not always as it is today. After the Ashlenazim moved to other neighborhoods of the city, the place was left unused for several decades. In 2010, it was restored, and its doors were open to the public with the objective of making Jewish culture known to the curious and the foreign. Currently, guided visits are available. Also, entrance is permitted to anyone who wants to enjoy the space alone. On the ground floor of the principle building, there a photographs of the parties that were held in the forties and even a replica of the menu, that makes clear the syncretism of a community that integrated its roots in its host country,. On the second level is the where place of prayer can be seen and appreciated.

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Welcome to the Historic Synagogue Justo Sierra 71 –  a corner of Eastern Europe in the heart of the Center Mexico City

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Come in to get to know its details

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El interior/Inside

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El techo/The ceiling

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Programación del baile y de la música/Programming of Dance and Music

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Programación educativa/Educacional Programming

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Dr. Aneet Poier spoke about:                                                                                                                                    Sukkot, the holiday fo booths: Redefining the concept of happiness                               What is the meaning of Simchat Torah?

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Happy Sukkot:! Hebrew calligraphy with Chinese brush strokes

Instituciones de las comunidades judías de Latinoamérica/ As instituiçãos das comunidades judaicas na América latina.

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Sociedad Hebraica, Buenos Aires Argentina

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Sociedad Hebraica Argentina

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Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (AMIA-Buenos Aires)

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AMIA

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Centro de Cultura Hebraica – São Paulo, Brasil

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Centro de Cultura Judaica – São Paulo, Brasil

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Associação Religiosa Israelita/Progresista – Rio de Janeiro

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Associação Religiosa Israelita – Rio de Janeiro

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El Periódico enlacejudío -México

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Círculo Israelita de Santiago, Chile

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Circulo Israelita de Chile

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HaShuva – Boletín Paraguayo

Comunidad Judía del Paraguay

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Centro Israelita del Uruguay

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Nuevo Mundo Israel Venezuela

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Confederación de Comunidades de Colombia

 

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Judaism Contact Center – Bolivia

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Centro Israelita  Sionista- Costa Rica

 

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“La cultura como estrategia en tiempos de crisis”/”Culture as a Strategy in Times of Crisis ” — “Un Encuentro” en Buenos Aires, 2001/ “An Encounter” in Buenos Aires, 2001

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EL ENCUENTRO EN BUENOS AIRES

En julio y agosto de 2001, el gobierno argentino sancionó leyes que afirmaron que todos los depósitos en los bancos fueron congelados por las entidades financieras autorizadas para funcionar por de Banco Central de la República Argentina. De repente, miles de familias judía se encontraron empobrecidas Ellos y muchos otros argentinos estaban confusos, enfadados, deprimidos o peor aún. 

       En ese mismo infierno tuvo lugar el primero de los Encuentros Internacionales de Intelectuales, festivales de la colectividad judía en la Argentina. Después de atentado contra la AMIA (Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina) del 18 de julio de 1994, la vida judía en Argentina había atravesado años difíciles. El horror de la bomba y los muertos y heridos, la muy discutida y dificultosa construcción del edificio que reemplazaría al sangrientamente destruida, los problemas económicos, las posibilidades de nuevos ataques terroristas, todo confluía para complicar la propia relación entre los integrantes de la comunidad y su institución central.

       Por esos años, un meditado y audaz ensayo de Ricardo Feierstein: “Estrategias culturales para la comunidad judía”, publicado en medios comunitarios, propuso a la cultura como un vehículo adecuado para restañar los heridos lazos de la urdidumbre social, desgarrada por el cruel ataque, y lograr, una vez inauguradas de las nuevas instalaciones, “una reconstrucción espiritual” alrededor de la institución central de la colectividad, desplegando una intensa actividad teatral, musical y literaria que permitiera superar el temor y las prevenciones y atrajera nuevamente al centro comunitario.

       Dentro de esta perspectiva, él imaginó y yo como codirector, ayudé a realizar los Congresos Internacionales para debatir, entre otros temas, el rumbo el futuro de los judíos argentinos a comienzos de siglo XXI.

       El evento estaba planeado desde el marzo anterior, pero, por una coincidencia benéfica, se inauguró en el momento en que fue más necesario: del 11 al 14 agosto de 2001. Llevó el título de “Recreando la cultura judeoargentina (1894-2001); en el umbral del segundo siglo”. Estos cuatro días de intercambio intelectual y artístico fueron patrocinados por el Departamento de Cultura de la AMIA.

       Unas de las metas del Encuentro fueron:

  • Estimular la producción cultural judía.
  • Pasar de la queja paralizante al debate fecundo y orientador.
  • Otorgar un espacio a las estrategias de la creación y el esfuerzo espiritual.
  • Dar lugar a nuevos artistas, a la literatura joven, el entusiasmo judío opuesto al pragmatismo y la desideologización de la época.

       El Encuentro fue gratis en ambos sentidos (nadie paga y nadie cobra”), abierto al publico desde la mañana hasta la noche. El programa extenso se organizó siguiendo el modelo de los Torathon, una serie de festivales de la cultura judía muy exitosos que yo había co-dirigido para la Federación Judía de Worcester, Massachusetts. Durante su transcurso, aproximadamente cien voluntarios participaron y mil trescientos asistieron. Las conferencias oscilaron entre la historia de la colectividad judía-argentina y los productos culturales de la misma. Se ocuparon de cuestiones persistentes de la identidad judía en la Argentina o cómo están descritos los judíos en la literatura. También, había estudios acerca de la Shoá y de Israel.

       La gran mayoría de los conferencistas fueron escritores, artistas y críticos literarios, entre ellos, Aída Bortnik, Mario Goloboff, Marcos Silber, Alicia Steimberg, Gisela Bercovich, Bernardo Koremblit, Paul Verdevoye, Diana Sperling y Diego Paszkiwski. También hablaron filósofos, sicólogos, psiquiatras, periodistas, abodados y hasta ingenieros. Asistió un grupo notable de estudiosos y escritores de los Estados Unidos, entre ellos, Stanley Barkin, Clark Zlotchew y Darrell Lockhart. El teatro y la música alternaron con discursos y paneles. Se pusieron en escena dos dramas Hombre de dos amores de Sol Leviton, una pieza corta sobre la identidad judía escrita expresivamente para el Encuentro y una farsa de Ana María Shua.

       La música incluyó klezmer influenciado por el jazz por el dúo Marcelo Moguilevsky y César Lerner, el Coro idish Mordje Guebertig, las canciones sefaradiés de Eleonora Noga Alberti y las improvisaciones de Paloma Sneh, una joven saxofonista que interpretó “Summertime” de George Gershwin. Afuera del auditorio había una exhibición de arte con la obra de Basia Kuperman, Delia Banchik y Víctor Chab entre muchos otros.

       Como participante en el Encuentro, di una conferencia sobre “La colonia judía a través de la ficción actual”.

       Mil cuatrocientas personas escucharon, preguntaron, miraron las obras de arte durante este primer Encuentro. Poco tiempo después, se publicaron en un libro las Actas del Encuentro, que incluyeron los textos de las conferencias, las transcripciones de todas las discusiones y, debajo de la solapa de atrás del volumen, un CD con toda la música ejecutada y cantada en el Encuentro.

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Scan 2018-8-7 12.19.51Scan 2018-8-7 12.05.15Scan 2018-8-7 12.12.01Scan 2018-8-7 12.27.47

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Para comprar este libro

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THE “ENCUENTRO” IN BUENOS AIRES    

       During July and August 2001, the Argentinean governments approved laws that affirmed that all the deposits in banks were frozen by the financial organizations authorized by the Central Bank of the Argentinean Republic. Suddenly, thousands of Jewish families found themselves impoverished. They and many other Argentines were confused, angry, depressed or worse.

       During this same hellish period, the first of three International “Encuentros” of Intellectuals, festivals of the Jewish community in Argentina took place. After the car-bombing of the AMIA (Jewish Mutual Association of Argentina) on July 18, 1994, Jewish life in Argentina had gone through difficult years. The horror of the bombing, the dead and wounded, the much discussed and stressful construction of the building that would replace the bloodily destroyed one, the economic problems, the possibility of new terrorist attacks, all came together to complicate the relationship itself between the community and its central institution.

       Around that time, a thoughtful and audacious essay by Ricardo Feierstein: “Cultural Strategies for the Jewish Community,” published in Jewish periodicals, proposed culture as an appropriate vehicle for recovering from the weakened threads of the social fabric, torn by the cruel attack, and that would achieve, once the new facilities were inaugurated, “a spiritual reconstruction” based on the central institution of the community. This would let forth intensive theatrical, musical activity that would allow the overcoming of fear and precautions and would attract people once again to the community center.

       With that perspective in mind, Feierstein conceived of, and I helped him as co-director to create the first International Congress in order to debate, among other topics, the future direction that the Argentine-Jews would take at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

       The event had been planned for the preceding March, but by a fortunate coincidence, it opened when it was most needed:

August 11th to 14th, 2001. It was entitled “Recreating the Argentinean-Jewish Culture (1894-2001: On the Threshold of its Second Century.” These four days of intellectual and artistic interchange were sponsored by the Department of Culture of the AMIA,

       Some of the goals of the Encuentro were:

  • To stimulate Jewish cultural production.
  • To move from paralyzing complaint to fecund and helpful debate.
  • To offer a space for strategies of creation and spiritual effort,
  • To create a place for new artists, to young literature; to Jewish enthusiasm opposed to the pragmatism and desideologization of the times.

       The Encuentro was free in both senses (“nobody pays, nobody charges”,) open to the public from morning until night. The extensive program was organized following the model of the Torathon, a series of very successful Jewish cultural festivals that I had co-directed for the Jewish Federation of Worcester, Massachusetts. During its course, approximately thirteen hundred volunteers participated, and one thousand three hundred attended. The lectures oscillated between the history of the Argentinean Jewish community and its cultural productions. They treated questions pertinent to Jewish identity in Argentinean or how Jews were depicted in literature. There were also studies of the Shoah and of Israel.

       The great majotity of the speakers were writers, artists and literary critics, among them, Aída Bortnik, Mario Goloboff, Marcos Silber, Alicia Steimberg, Gisela Bercovich, Bernardo Koremblit, Paul Verdevoye, Diana Sperling y Diego Paszkiwski. Philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists, journalists, lawyers and even engineers spoke. In attendance was a group of notable scholars and writers from the United States, among them, Stanley Barkin, Clark Zlotchew y Darrell Lockhart. Theater and music alternated with lectures and panels. Three dramas were produced:  Man with Two Loves by Sol Leviton, a short piece written expressly for the Encuentro and a farce by Ana María Shua.

       The music included jazz-influenced Klezmer by the duet of Marcelo Moguilevsky y César Lerner, the Yiddish Chorus “Mordje Guebertig,” the Sephardic songs of Eleanora Noga Alberti and the improvisations of Paloma Sneh, a young saxophone player who interpreted George Gershwin’s “Summertime.” Outside the auditorium, there was an artshow with the work of Basia Kuperman, Delia Banchik and Víctor Chab, among many others.

       As a participant in the Encuentro, I gave a lecture about “The Jewish Colonies in Argentina as Portrayed in Recent Fiction.

       Fourteen hundred people heard, asked questions, viewed the artworks during this first Encuentro. Soon thereafter, The Annals of the Encuentro were published; they included all the texts of the lectures, the transcriptions of all of the discussions and, under the rear book flap, a CD with all the music played and sung during the conference.

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Dos Encuentros más siguieron:/Two more Encuentros followed:

 

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Encuentro II en Buenos Aires 2003

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Encuentro II en Rosario, Argentina

 

Arquitetura das Sinagogas em Brasil/ Brazilian Synagogue Architecture

Hé mais de 110 sinagogas no Brasil, praticamente metade delas em São Paulo, cidade com maior concentração de população judaica do país.

No cenário brasileiro, uma tradição histórica: não existe um estilo arquitetônico único para as sinagogas. Elas refletem o momento vivido por uma determinada comunidade, como as características geográficas e culturais do meio onde ela se insere combinadas com tradições carregadas por aquela coletividade na Diáspora. Por exemplo, no Rio de Janeiro, sinagogas combinam a necessidade de conviver com o calor típico da cidade com tradições provenientes da longínqua Europa oriental. Do alto da sua experiência fotografando mais de uma centena de sinagogas, opina Niels Andreas: “Nenhuma sinagoga é igual à outra, embora elas sejam compostas sempre pelos mesmos elementos, como rolos da Torá, menorot, entre outros”     Adaptado da revista MORASHÁ, São Paulo.

________________________________There are more than 110 synagogues in Brazil, almost half of them in São Paulo, the city with the highest concentration of Jewish population in the country.

In Brazil, there is no single architectural style for synagogues. They reflect the moment lived by a particular community, such as the geographic and cultural characteristics of the environment in which it is inserted combined with traditions carried by that community in the Diaspora. For example, in Rio de Janeiro, synagogues combine the need to live with the typical heat of the city with traditions from far eastern Europe. From the height of his experience photographing more than a hundred synagogues, Niels Andreas opines: “No synagogue is the same as the other, although they are always composed of the same elements, such as Torah scrolls, menorot, among others”    Adapted from the magazine MORASHÁ, São Paulo.

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Alguns exemplos da arquitetura das sinagogas de Brasil/Some Examples of Brazilian Synagogue Architecture

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Sinagoga Beth El, São Paulo

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Sinagoga Ohel Yaakov, São Paulo

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Sinagoga Israelita Brasileira, São Paulo

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Grande Templo Israelita, Rio de Janeiro

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Sinagoga Israelita de Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro

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Sinagoga Francisco Frischmann, Curitiba

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Sinagoga Shear Hashamiam, Belém

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Sinagoga Kahal Zur Israel, Recife

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Sinagoga União Israelita, Porto Alegre

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Beit Yaacov Synagogue Rebi Meyr (interior), Manaus, Amazonas

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Susana Satinosky — Musicoterapeuta judío-argentina/Argentine-Jewish Music Therapist

Susana Satinosky — Musicoterapeuta

Susana Satinosky — Music Therapist

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Susana Satinosky

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Susana Satinosky es musicoterapeuta y docente de la Carrera de Musicoterapia de la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Ha trabajado como musicoterapeuta en el servicio de Psiquiatría del Hospital Italiano, en el centro de Nivelación Psicopedagógica y Discapacidad “Mi Amanecer” y coordina grupos de reflexión y musicoterapia. Autora de los libros, Técnicas y tratamientos en musicoterapia(Editorial Galerna) y Musicoterapia clínica (Editorial Galerna).

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Susana Satinosky is a music therapist and instructor in the Music Therapy Program at the University of Buenos Aires. She has worked as a music therapist in the Psychiatry Service of the Italian Hospital, and in the “My Dawn” Center for the Evaluation of Psycho-pedagogy and Disabilities. She coordinates reflection groups and music therapy activities. She is the author of the books: Técnicas y tratamientos en musicoterapia (Editorial Galerna) y Musicoterapia clínica (Editorial Galerna). 

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Video de un grupo de reflexión/Video of a Reflection group

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 ENTREVISTA DE SUSANA SATINOSKY, MUSICOTERAPEUTA, POR MARIO BER, PROFESOR

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MB:  ¿Qué es la Musicoterapia?

SS:  La musicoterapia es una disciplina que abre un canal de comunicación entre un sujeto y un profesional, utilizando la música y sus elementos: sonido, ritmo, melodía y armonía.

MB: ¿Qué es lo que “cura” la musicoterapia? Si soy barítono, por ejemplo, ¿puedo cantar en un registro de tenor? Si me pone nervioso la música de rock y quiero escuchar Klezmer, ¿eso realmente me va a tranquilizar?

SS: La musicoterapia se dirige hacia una meta donde la terapeuta ayuda al paciente a mejorar su calidad de vida, manteniendo un estado de bienestar a través de experiencias musicales. Si escuchamos por ejemplo una música judaica, ¿qué percibimos? Se producen asociaciones de todo tipo, que posibilitan conocer algunos aspectos de la historia sonora del paciente. En segundo lugar se toma conciencia de ciertas elecciones musicales, distintos géneros y estilos. Se pone de relieve la autoestima del sujeto, su conocimiento, sus predilecciones.

MB: ¿Cómo se opera en una sesión?

SS: En los grupos se reúnen de 8 a 10 personas. Se reconocen nombres, historias musicales o de vida. Realizan un círculo, crean distintos climas de solidaridad y compañerismo. El musicoterapeuta asigna consignas temporales, hace un recorte de acuerdo al tipo de demanda que genera cada integrante.

Ellos pueden apreciar en conjunto una obra musical, en ese caso están realizando musicoterapia receptiva, sólo escuchan y generan climas diversos.

Si la decisión es usar objetos intermediarios, se efectúa una puesta en escena con improvisaciones, cantos, melodías y ejecución de instrumentos musicales, algunos de percusión o melódicos, entonces hablamos de musicoterapia activa.

Son reconocidos socialmente, vivencian situaciones a través del sonido, las reminiscencias, la afectividad y el ejercicio de la memoria. En esta actividad se genera contención y respaldo a las dificultades que pueden estar pasando en esos momentos. Allí se afirman la autoestima y la valoración de la propia vida, porque en otro espacio no logran estar atentas a esos requerimientos.

MB: ¿Cómo es la derivación? ¿Cómo adviene la gente a vos? Conocemos una persona con angustias, otra con pesadillas, otra que le cuesta integrarse, o alguna estresada que abundan en estas épocas. ¿Cómo llega a un tratamiento de musicoterapia una persona?

SS: Generalmente son derivadas por médicos que conocen estas técnicas. Otras veces se enteran por comentarios orales. Alguna amiga le contó que concurre a musicoterapia y le relata algo de su experiencia. Entonces aparecen en la sesión, previo llamado y entrevista personal, que se realiza en primera instancia..

Hay personas que vienen y dicen: “Hoy no quiero hacer musicoterapia, hoy quiero hablar.” Entonces que hable, que relate lo que quiere decir. La escucha es lo que sostiene la angustia. La entrevista inicial contiene preguntas relacionadas a su historia musical.

MB: Un amigo mío que tuvo mellizas, acunaba a sus hijas con una música que dice así: “Ma nishtaná, a laila a tzé…”. No tenía registro de lo que realmente estaba cantando. Eran las “fir cashes”, las cuatro preguntas que corresponden a la melodía que se entona en las fiestas de Pésaj (Pascuas) y cuya traducción expresa lo siguiente: “Por qué esta noche es diferente de las demás noches…”. En qué es distinta esta noche de las demás anocheceres. Esta pareja posee una historia muy particular en sus vidas. Entonar estas canciones les traía recuerdos de liberación. Los días en que se festeja Pésaj (Pascua) es cuando dejamos de ser esclavos del faraón y logramos ser libres como pueblo hebreo. Lo regresivo sería llegar a una determinada situación, como la que llegaron mis amigos, ahora lo entiendo con este ejemplo que pongo sobre la mesa.

SS: Si nos referimos a la historia, en el Talmud está expresado lo siguiente: Israel  entiende que puede conseguir de su Creador el perdón de los pecados cometidos en el año por medio del toque del Shofar (instrumento musical que se ejecuta en el templo el Día del Perdón). Es interpretado en aquéllos días de comienzos del año, cuando Dios juzga a los hombres y decide sobre su vida y su muerte. En las culturas antiguas está muy presente el concepto de lo que se entiende por musicoterapia. Igual sucede con instrumentos como la lira, que tiene muchas connotaciones dentro del judaísmo.

MB: Sí, uno puede pensar en el Salterio, en aquéllos instrumentos que remiten a las culturas que recitan los Salmos, los de percusión, las cuerdas que se tañían con las manos.  

SS:  Es muy importante para nuestro trabajo dónde se ubican los sonidos. Aquéllos más agudos (que tienen que ver con el canto de los pájaros) repercuten en el cerebro, en la cabeza. Los graves, se perciben en el vientre. Los compositores antiguos sabían ciertamente adonde se dirigía cada uno de ellos. Los tambores se perciben en los miembros inferiores. De ese modo se puede zapatear, bailar o realizar actividades en los grupos de reflexión, donde lo terapéutico tiene un papel preponderante. La risa distiende, al divertirse los integrantes viven momentos de alegría.

MB: La música puede transportar, por ejemplo, a un inmigrante que residía en Polonia, donde vivía el Klezmer en toda su dimensión. ¿Cómo relacionás biografía personal y música?

Recuerdo una sesión donde repartí diez partituras, para que cada integrante eligiera una que lo represente. Se creó un clima de reminiscencias, evocando tiempos pasados y  espacios vividos. Tres participantes eran oriundas de la ciudad de Concordia, en Entre Ríos. Comenzaron a marcar un ritmo determinado, hasta que surgió una canción a través de una palabra. La letra de la misma hace referencia al perfume del jazmín  paraguayo que tenían en los jardines de entrada de sus casas. Una de ellas pregunta: “¿te acordás de “La Pulpera de Santa Lucía”? Otra responde con los primeros acordes, mientras cantan la letra de forma espontánea…

El  clima de alegría, camaradería y solidaridad se consolidó a través de una ronda armada con medias de mujer, que utilizaron como objetos intermediarios, entrelazándose mientras continuaban entonando esa melodía.

Algunos integrantes del grupo son viudos o están separados y enfrentan una gran soledad. Los recuerdos en común sirven para fomentar la autoestima, aún habiendo pasado por una catarsis o una regresión.

Otra de las señoras, al plantear y organizar el ritmo, dice: “Es tan importante para mí poder tocarme las piernas, tomar conciencia de ellas…” Y con el movimiento rítmico sobre sus muslos -los acentos de un vals- pudo mostrarse ante el grupo como una más. En ese instante casi olvidó la percepción de sus miembros inferiores, recuperó el poder hacer, participar. Eso está explicando algunos de los momentos por los que atraviesa un paciente en este proceso. 

MB: ¿Se puede superar el estrés?

SS: Sí, depende de cada paciente. La actividad comienza a través de una relajación, con la escucha de una música tranquilizante. Por lo general, los participantes llegan estresados. Al terminar la sesión suelen verbalizar lo que han realizado. Entonces expresan: “una sensación es cómo entré a la actividad y otra muy distinta, cómo me voy”.

Algunas consignas utilizan los sentidos. Al tocar el rostro propio y el del compañero perciben la piel húmeda o cálida, las arrugas. El contacto y tacto son modos de intervención que se utilizan en un segundo momento del tratamiento, después de haber entrado en comunicación y cuando los lazos de confianza están afianzados.

Suelen aparecer celos al elegir instrumentos musicales para percutir. Esa selección hace que aflore el inconsciente en casi todas las sesiones.

MB:  Y si en medio de la sesión de musicoterapia alguien improvisa una canción en idish como “Sha, Still…” (“Cállense, silencio”)…

SS: El idioma idish, para ciertas personas, es muy significativo, connota una imaginería especial. La letra dice: “Cuando el rabino canta, los demás imitan…/ cuando el rabino aplaude los demás lo siguen/ si el rabino hace ritmos con los pies, los demás imitan…”. El liderazgo del rebe (rabino) se constituye de forma instintiva.

Hay guiños entre compañeros que están realizando esta experiencia, surgen mitos, creencias, tradiciones comunes. Las canciones suelen presentarse en todas las etapas de la vida. Desde antes del nacimiento escuchamos sonidos, a través del vientre materno.  Canciones de cuna, que reprimimos con el paso del tiempo. En mi recorrido profesional, todavía no hubo persona que no recordara alguna melodía de su infancia.

El canto se relaciona con la afectividad porque aparece una intención en lo que cada uno quiere expresar, no sólo al producir música, sino también con el lenguaje. Lo que se dice con palabras, el recitado o las letras, se analiza en cada historia musical.

En los adultos mayores se denotan tiempos más lentos. Los que por motivos de salud no pueden trasladarse, bailan desde sus lugares. La ayuda entre ellos es un acto de socialización. Algunos están imposibilitados, se toman de la mano, acompañan y hacen un recorrido de sensaciones y reminiscencias que en el momento de verbalizar resulta terapéutico y así lo afirman.


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            AN INTERVIEW WITH SUSANA SATINOSKY,             MUSIC THERAPIST, BY MARIO BER, TEACHER

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MB:  What is music therapy?

SS: Music Therapy is a discipline that opens a channel of communication between a subject and a professional, utilizing music and its elements: sound, rhythm and harmony.”

MB: What does Music Therapy “cure”? For example, if I am a baritone, can I sing in the tenor’s registry? If rock music makes me nervous, and I want to listen to Klezmer, will that really relax me?

SS: Music Therapy is directed toward the goal of the therapist helping the patient improve his quality of life, by maintaining a state of well-being through musical experiences. If we listen to, for example, a piece of Jewish music, what do we perceive? Associations of all types, which make it possible to know the musical history of the patient. Secondly, the therapist identifies certain preferred musical choices, genres and styles. This highlights  the self-esteem of the subject, his knowledge, his predilections.”

MB: What happens during a session?

SS: Eight to ten people come together in each group. They exchange names, stories about music or life. They make a circle and create distinct climates of mutual support and team spirit. The Music Therapist prompts specific activities and carefully observes and records low how each member reacts to them. 

They can enjoy a musical work together.  By doing that, they are experiencing receptive music therapy, on which they only listen and experience differing moods.

If the therapist decides to use shared objects, a mise-en scene is formed with improvisations, songs, melodies and the playing of musical instruments, some of them percussion and others melodic,  This is active music therapy..

They receive social recognition. They relive situations through sound, reminiscences, emotions and the use of memory. In this activity, support and help comes forth for the problems and difficulties being experienced at that time. There, self-esteem and the value of one’s own life are affirmed, because in nowhere else do they receive attention to those needs.

MB: How is the referral made? How to people come to you? We know a person with anxieties, another with nightmares, another who finds it hard to fit in, or suffers from stress, so common these days. How does someone find music therapy treatment?

SS: Generally, they are referred by doctors who are familiar with these techniques. A friend may have said that she attends music therapy and told her something about the experience. After having had a personal interview in which I evaluate her condition, and that done as soon as possible, she arrives with her friend at the session.

There are people who come and say: “Today, I don’t want to do Music Therapy, today I want to speak.” In that case, let them speak, let them say what they want to say. Listening gives support to their anxiety. The initial interview contains questions related to their musical history.”

MB: A friend of mine had twins, He rocked his daughters with music like this: ‘Ma nashtana, ha laila hazeh , , , he wasn’t aware of what he was singing. They were the “Fir cashes.” the four questions that correspond to the melody song during the Passover services, and whose translation expresses “How is this night different from every other night . . ?’ In what way is this night different from every other nights.” This couple possesses a very unusual story in their lives. So these songs bring them memories of liberation. The days in which Passover is celebrated are when we cease being slaves to Pharaoh, and we begin to feel free as the Hebrew people. Going backward would be to arrive at a specific situation, like that which happened to my friends. Now I understand this example that I put on the table.

SS: If we refer to the history, the Talmud expresses it so: Israel understands that it can obtain from its Creator for pardon  sins committed during the year, through the sounding of the Shofar (the musical instrument played in the temple on Yom Kippur.) It is played during  those days at the beginning of the New Year when God judges men and decides about their life or death. In ancient cultures, the concept of what is understood by music therapy was very much present. The same thing happens with instruments like the lyre, that has many connotations within Judaism.

MB: If you can think of the Book of Psalms, about those instruments that belong to the cultures that that recite the Psalms, those of percussion, the cords that are are grasped with hands.

SS: Where the sounds are felt is very important for our work. The sharper ones (those that are similar to bird songs) reverberate in the brain, in the head. The deep ones are perceived in the abdomen. The ancient composers certainly knew where to direct each sound. The drums are felt in the legs. That way, you can tap your feet, dance or take part in activities in the reflection groups, where the therapeutic process has a preponderant role. The laughter eases the situation. Having fun, the group members experience a moment of joy.

MB: For example, music can transport an immigrant who used to live in Poland, where Klezmer music was experienced in all its dimensions. How do you connect personal biography and music?

SS: I remember a session where I divided up ten pieces of sheet music, so that each group member could choose one that was representative of himself. A climate of reminiscences formed, evoking past times and places lived in. Three participants were natives of Concordia in Entre Rios province. They began to keep time to a specific rhythm. until a song broke out from one word. The words of the song make reference to the scent of Paraguayan jasmine that they had had in the gardens in front of their houses. One of participants asks, “Do you remember “La pulpería de  of Santa Lucía”? Another responds with the opening chords, and they sing the words spontaneously.

A  climate of happiness, friendship and mutual support grows stronger through a game based on a woman’s stockings, that became shared objects,  They touched each other, while they continued singing that melody.

Some members of the group are widowers or are separated from their spouses and experience strong feelings of loneliness. The shared memories serve to boost self-esteem, even when having passed through a catharsis of a regression.

Another one of the ladies, after suggesting and organizing the rhythm, says ‘ It is important for me to touch my legs, to become conscious of them . . and with the rhythmic movement of her thighs–the rhythm of a waltz–she could show herself to the group as one of them. In that instant, she almost forgot her perception of what her legs were like, recuperated the ability to do, to participate. That explains some of the moments that the a patient goes through in this process.

MB: Is it possible to overcome stress?

SS: Yes, it depends on each patient. The activity begins with a relaxation activity, with listening to calming music. In general, the patients arrive very stressed. At the end of the session, they tend to verbalize what they have achieved. Then, they express “that the sensation  that I came in with is different from what I feel when I leave.”

Some procedures utilize the senses. Upon touching their own faces and those of their friends, they perceive damp or warm skin, wrinkles. Contact and touch are modalities of intervention that are used in a later stage of treatment, after they are communicating, and when the ties of confidence are secure.

The therapist gives instructions about how to enhance the patients’ body posture in front of the other group members, while doing circle and couples’ dances, accompanied by folkloric music such as the zamba or pericón,

Jealousy frequently appears as percussion musical instruments are chosen to be beaten. That choice causes the unconscious to to show itself in almost all the sessions.

MB: And if in the middle of a music therapy session, someone improvises a song in Yiddish like ‘Sha, Still .  .  (Be quiet. Silence) . . .

SS: The Yiddish language, for certain people, has great meaning; it connotes a special set of imagery. The words say ‘When the rabbi dances, the others do the same, .  .when the rabbi applauds, the others do the same . . . The leadership of the rebe (rabbi) in established in an instinctive way.

There are winks between friends who are taking part in this experience; myths, beliefs, traditions in common. The songs normally are present at all stages of life. Before birth,  we hear sounds through the mother’s womb. Lullabies, that we repress as time passes. In my professional journey, I haven’t encountered a single person who doesn’t remember a melody from childhood..

Singing is related to the emotions because it appears to be an intent in which everyone wants to express, not only produce music, but also with the language. What you can say in words, the recitation or the lyrics is analyzed in each musical story.

Even with listening, in the case of receptive music, we are expressing ourselves. If you were to observe through a microscope, we would see the eyes shine.when the patients improvise or execute. The movements are invisible on the eyelids.With older adults, a slower pace is indicated. Those who for health reasons, can’t move around, dance in their places. Helping each other is an act of socialization. Some are disabled. the are taken by the hand. They accompany the others and experience of sensations and reminiscences that, in the moment of verbalization, have therapeutic results ,and so, they affirm them.

Translation by Stephen A. Sadow

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Para comprar este libro

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Buenos Aires judío/ Jewish Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires judío/ Jewish Buenos Aires

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Lugares para visitar/Places to Visit

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El Gran Templo Paso -Ortodoxo

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Sinagoga Sefaradí/Sephardic Synagogue 

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Congregación Bet El, Conservadora/Bet El Congregation, Conservative

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Vitraux en Templo Libertad//Stained glass window in Templo Libertad – Ortodoxo

 

The Jewish Museum of Buenos Aires

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El muro de nombres y el edificio de la AMIA/The AMIA Wall  of  Names and building

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Actividades de La Sociedad Hebraica/Activities at the Hebraica Social Center

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El barrio Once/The Once Neighborhood

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Una menorá en la Plaza Recoleta puesta por Jabád/A Menorah in the Recoleta Plaza, placed there by Chabad

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Guías recomendados por Steve Sadow/                      Guides recommended by Steve Sadow

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Ernesto Yattah

El rabino Ernesto Yattah dirige recorridos privados “Buenos Aires Judío”, donde muestra los lugares importantes, la historia, y la situation actual de la comunidad judía.

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Rabbi Ernesto Yattah gives private tours of “Jewish Buenos Aires,” in which he shows the important places, recounts the history of the Buenos Aires Jewish community and discusses its current situation.

Jewish Buenos Aires Tour — Ernesto Yattah

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Victoria Lustig

Victoria Lustig ofrece un recorrido por el pasado y el presente del la comunidad judía de Buenos Aires. Sur recorrido incluye visitas a los barrios Once y Villa Crespo (a veces llamado “Villa Kreplach”.) También incluidos son varias sinagogas y la sede de la AMIA;

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Victoria Lustig  offers a tour throughout the past and present of the Jewish community in Buenos Aires. Her tour includes visits to the Once and Villa Crespo (sometimes called “Villa Kreplach”) neighborhoods. Also included are several synagogues and the AMIA headquarters..

Jewish Buenos Aires Tour — Victoria Lustig

 

 

 

 

Murray Baumgarten, Profesor distinguido panameño-norteamericano-judío — Pananamian-American-Jewish Distinguished Professor — “Shape-Shifters” Memories a Panamanian Jewish Childhood — In English

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Murray Baumgarten

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The University of California-Sant Cruz has established the new Murray Baumgarten Endowed Chair in Jewish Studies in the Center for Jewish Studies, located in the UC Santa Cruz Institute for Humanities Research.  The purpose of the chair is to promote research, teaching, and public outreach activities in the area of Jewish Studies. “Murray Baumgarten is truly one of the finest, most decent people I’ve ever known,” noted UC Santa Cruz Chancellor George Blumenthal. “Wherever he goes, Murray builds community. He nurtured the Jewish Studies program, helped launch our Jewish Studies major, and teamed up with Peter Kenez to teach a legendary class about the Holocaust, the online version of which has reached more than 20,000 people in 60 countries. Murray is a campus treasure.”

Now a distinguished professor emeritus of English and comparative literature at UC Santa Cruz, Baumgarten was born on a boat traveling from Europe to Panama on the eve of World War II. After spending time in the refugee Jewish community of Colon, Panama, Baumgarten immigrated to America, where he earned degrees from Columbia University and UC Berkeley before coming to the newly created UC Santa Cruz in 1967. Hired as a scholar of 19th century British literature, he helped co-found the world renowned Dickens Project. Although the new university did not have a program in Jewish Studies, Baumgarten and a few colleagues decided to create courses in Jewish history and culture to fill the void. Eventually, with the help of a grant from the Helen Diller Family Foundation, Baumgarten founded the Jewish Studies program and created an undergraduate major.

UCSC source

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U.S.S. Missouri crossing the Panama Canal

A Library of Latin America Jewish Studies/Una biblioteca de los estudios judío-latinoamericanos

Scholars from around the world have been doing intense and profound research on all aspects of Jewish Latin America. The majority of these investigators are or have been active members of the world-wide Latin American Studies Association (LAJSA). They work in history, anthropology, sociology and ethnography. Studies of Jewish literature written in Spanish and Portuguese abound, and there is a growing interest in art and music. Journal articles and doctoral theses appear constantly.

These findings are fascinated. Edited collections and work by single authors describe  vibrant and distinct, if often troubled, Jewish cultures in the Latin American Republics.

If I have missed an important book, please let me know, and I will add it here.

Literatura en español/em portugués

Latin American Jewish literature in English

LAJSA publication list

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THE LIBRARY

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Iván Cherjovsky — Antropólogo y documentalista judío-argentino/Argentine-Jewish Anthropologist and Documentary Maker — “Recuerdos de Moisés Ville y Jerusalem Argentina”/ “Memories of Moisés Ville and The Jerusalem of Argentina”

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ivan cherjovsky
Ivan Chernovsky

Iván Cherjovsky es Licenciado y Doctor en Antropología por la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Se desempeña como profesor en la Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas de la Universidad Abierta Interamericana y es investigador del Centro de Altos Estudios en Ciencias Sociales de la mencionada universidad. Además, es docente/investigador de la Universidad Nacional de Quilmes e integra el Núcleo de Estudios Judíos del Instituto de Desarrollo Económico y Social y la Latin American Jewish Studies Association (LAJSA).

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Iván Cherjovsky received his PhD. in Anthropology from the University of Buenos Aires. He is a professor in the College of Law and Social Sciences of the Inter-American Open University, where he is also a researcher at Center for Advanced Studies in Social Sciences. Also, he is an instructor/researcher at the National University of Quilmes and is a member of the Nucleus for Jewish Studies of the Institute for Economic and Social Development and the Latin American Jewish Studies Association (LAJSA).

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Editorial Teseo

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La Jerusalem argentina, documental editado por Iván Cherjovsky y Melina Serber

Jerusalem in Argentina, a documentary edited by Iván Cherjovsky and Melina Serber

En Moisés Ville, un pequeño pueblo rural de la pampa argentina, los últimos descendientes de los míticos gauchos judíos han emprendido la lucha contra el olvido: atesoran las reliquias de los pioneros en un impresionante museo, acompañan a los turistas por las sinagogas vacías, gestionan declaratorias patrimoniales para los edificios más significativos y rememoran los tradicionales sabores judaicos comprando Leicaj en la panadería local. Mientras tanto, todos esperan ansiosos la llegada de la Fiesta de Integración Cultural, el nuevo evento que define a este lejano y exótico rincón del mundo.

In Moisés Ville, a rural village founded at the end of the 19th century in the heart of the pampas, the last descendants of the legendary Jewish gauchos fight against time to safeguard the memory of the pioneers. Lovingly, they showcase relics of their forbears in an impressive museum, accompany tourists through empty alleyways, and preserve with utmost care their most emblematic buildings. Meanwhile, everyone eagerly awaits the Festival of Cultural Integration, a new event that will define this distant and exotic corner of the world.

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Moisés Ville, Colonia agricultora judía en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina/ Moisés Ville, a Jewish Agricultural Colony in Santa Fe Province, Argentina

Moisés Ville

Moisés Ville surgió a partir de la iniciativa conjunta de alrededor de ciento treinta familias oriundas de la región ucraniana de Podolia que, a mediados de 1889, emigraron de la Rusia zarista para establecerse como agricultores en la Argentina. Durante ese período inicial de la colonización, la Alliance Israélite Universelle (una importante institución filantrópica parisina) solicitó al médico higienista judeo-alemán Wilhelm Loewenthal –quien había trabajado para el Estado argentino recorriendo distintas provincias– que visitara a los nóveles colonos y, en caso de ser necesario, los auxiliara. Su intervención resultó determinante para lograr el establecimiento definitivo del grupo, pero también para impulsar el ambicioso proyecto de colonización masiva que llevaría a la práctica inmediatamente el Barón Maurice de Hirsch, creador de la Jewish Colonization Association, la asociación filantrópica que organizó y financió el arribo de miles de judíos provenientes del este europeo a distintas colonias argentinas. Dicha compañía instaló a nuevos y sucesivos grupos de inmigrantes, incluyendo a unas ochenta familias alemanas que, en la segunda mitad de los años treinta, llegaron huyendo del nazismo.

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Moisés Ville arose from the joint initiative of around one hundred thirty families native of the Ukrainian region of Podolia that, in the middle of 1889, emigrated of tsarist Russia to settle down like agriculturists in Argentina.  During that initial period of colonization, the Alliance Israélite Universelle (a major Parisian philanthropic institution) asked the Judeo-German hygienist doctor Wilhelm Loewenthal -who had worked for the Argentine State through different provinces- to visit the new colonists and, in case if necessary, it will help them. His intervention was decisive to achieve the definitive establishment of the group, but also to promote the ambitious project of massive colonization that would immediately put into practice Baron Maurice de Hirsch, creator of the Jewish Colonization Association, the philanthropic association that organized and financed the arrival of thousands of Jews from Eastern Europe to different Argentine colonies. This company installed new and successive groups of immigrants, including about eighty German families who, in the second half of the thirties, came fleeing from Nazism.

“Gauchos judíos”/”Jewish Gauchos”

Pioneros de la Argentina/Pioneers in Argentina

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c. 1920

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c. 1920

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c. 1920

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c. 1939

Latin American Jewish Literature in English

If you know where to look, there a is a large body of writing by Latin American Jewish authors that is available in English or in English translation. Here are some of the “must read” books for those interested in exploring this marvelous Jewish literature. In another post, I will suggest collections of poetry in bilingual or in English-only formats. 

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When it was first published in 1980, Judith Laikin Elkin’s foundational book on the Jewish communities of Latin America quickly became the standard resource on the topic. This new edition, the first in fifteen years, brings the story up-to-date, incorporating the events of recent decades and reflecting new insights provoked by the changing political, cultural, and economic conditions throughout the region.

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In this collection of fifteen essays, Jewish Latin American writers speak for themselves about their lives, their literary work, their formative experiences, and the Jewish communities in Latin America and the United States. Included are writers from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Peru, and Venezuela, about half of whom live outside their country of origin.  Winner of the National Jewish Book Award for Autobiography  and Memoir.

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In Osorno, Chile, the Nazis were the great feudal lords of the south and being Jewish was like possessing a savage and dangerous scar.” The author thus describes the backdrop for this memoir of growing up as the daughter of European Jewish immigrants to Chile in the years before and after World War II. Speaking through the voice of her mother, she says, “I write these sometimes intermittent and true memories with the voice of an adolescent and then of a woman. . . . I wish to talk about my life in an unseemly and noisy house in southern Chile and about a town with fifty Nazis and three Jewish families. Everything I tell you is true and this is why I write so that it will be even more certain.                                —Marjorie Agosín

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In this remarkable memoir, Ariel Dorfman describes an extraordinary life, torn between the United States, South America, and his Jewish heritage, between English and Spanish, between revolution and repression.  Interwoven with the story of how Dorfman switched languages and countries–not once, but three times–is a day-to-day account of his multiple escapes from death during Pinochet’s military takeover of Chile in 1973.

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“Echad: An Anthology of Latin American Jewish Writings” is a truly marvelous collection. Editor Roberta Kalechofsky has brought together a diverse selection: short stories, poems, essays, interviews, excerpts from novels, and more. The anthology includes the work of authors from Argentina, Guatemala, Uruguay, Brazil, Mexico, and a number of other countries.

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Jewish Latin American literature in Spanish begins with The Jewish Gauchos of the Pampas, a series of vignettes about shtetl life in Argentina first published in 1910. Praised for its depiction of how two entirely different cultures could coexist in a symbiotic relationship, Jewish Gauchos was written about a decade after Jewish immigration to Argentina began in earnest.

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Published in 1977 to great critical acclaim, this remarkable novel is set in the 1930s within a small community of Jews in Peru. Don Jacobo Lerner, an immigrant from czarist Russia, lies on his deathbed trying to piece together his life. Told through the testimony of family and friends, through newspaper articles and cultural announcements, and, most memorably, in the haunting words of his bastard son.                                                                      This novel is one of The 100 Greatest Works of Modern Jewish Literature
As determined by “The Great Jewish Books Project”, in association with The National Yiddish Book Center

 

 

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First published in Argentina in 1994, this ingenious novel is a detective story in which the police try to solve an assassination and a lost man tries to reconstruct his identity. These two searches are set against the story of four generations of a Jewish family, a social and cultural narrative that spans nearly a hundred years of cataclysmic events of the century including World War I, the Russian and Cuban revolutions, the birth of the state of Israel, and the military dictatorship in Argentina.                                                                                            Mestizo is my favorite Latin American Jewish novel.

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Moacyr Scliar is a world-class fabulist with a solid and distinguished oeuvre awaiting discovery by a larger audience. I’ve seen The Centaur in the Garden compared to works by Franz Kafka, Nikolai Gogol, Philip Roth, Mordecai Richler, and even John Updike. At its center is Guedali Tartakowsky, a Jewish centaur born into a family of Russian immigrants in Rio Grande do Sul. Scliar pushes the tragic destiny of Tartakowsky through an infusion of comedy. Its style is vintage Scliar: crisp, speedy, cinematic, succinct.—Ilan Stavans

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From Brazil’s most distinguished and important Jewish writer comes this anthology comprised of six collections: iThese tragicomic stories reveal Scliar’s interest in issues of oppression, persecution, holocaust, mutability, and the interplay between good and evil. The Ballad of the False Messiah develops the theme of postponement in the sense that for Jews redemption is always postponed in a vain wait for the Messiah. In Van Gogh’s Ear, Scliar uses dark and subtle humor in a collection of biblical parables. Here witchcraft, magic, conundrums, and labyrinths are shown to be part of everyday life. A final autobiographical piece ties the collections together in which Scliar discusses his membership in Jewish, medical, gaucho, and Brazilian “tribes.”

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The Book of Memories, originally published in Spanish in 1994, is a humorous yet moving exploration of a Jewish family’s history, as seen through the eyes of three generations of women. The story begins with Grandfather Gedalia leaving Poland with forged papers to escape the army and sailing to Argentina, the “other America.” Sometimes charming, sometimes stingy, this patriarchal figure, a peddler and sometime moneylender, heads a clan that includes, among others, the feisty and foul-mouthed Aunt Judith and Uncle Silvester, a seducer of young girls who has such high principles that he turns himself in after missing the Argentine police raid on his socialist printing press.

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Raquel Orzuj — “Comentarista por viñetas” judío-uruguaya/ Uruguayan-Jewish “Editorial Cartoonist” –Temas judíos/Jewish Themes

 

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Raquel Orzuj se especializa en el dibujo significativo y la caricatura política.  Este tipo de arte está caracterizado por su concisión—la necesidad de expresar un mensaje o punto de vista en un solo dibujo, con pocas palabras o ninguna.

Exige que ese dibujo pueda llamar y captar, instantáneamente, la atención de alguien que esté leyendo un periódico o revista. Orzuj dirige sus cartunes a un público global. Este es un ejercicio multicultural por antonomasia.  Los dibujos sutiles y bien planeados; tiene que estar entendibles por gentes de muchas culturas y países.  Una imagen, un color puede tener una asociación en una cultura y la opuesta en otra.  Orzuj insinúan en vez de gritar sus comentarios. En sus dibujos, Raquel Orzuj se preocupa de la trasgresión de los derechos humanos, a todo nivel, en especialmente los de la infancia, la violencia de género, y la discriminación, en sus muchas formas.

En una entrevista por Fernando Puente, publicada en La Opinión de la Gente de Montevideo, Orzuj explica:

“Lo más fascinante para mi es publicar y concursar en Europa y Asia, es un reto cultural, pero también de género, por la escasez de mujeres en el campo -aún hoy, en pleno siglo XXI- de Editorial Cartoonists. Las metas y objetivos, profesionales, son dinámicos y permanentes, la avalancha de motivaciones, unida a la tecnología, imprime velocidad a la energía creadora multiplicando de manera sorprendente las posibilidades de ser.

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Raquel Orzuj is a specialist in drawings with meaning and political caricature. This type of art is characterized by its concision—the need to express a message or point of view in a single drawing with a few or no words.

It is crucial that this drawing can capture, immediately and instantaneously, the attention of the reader of a newspaper or magazine. Orzuj directs her cartoons to a global public. Hers is a multicultural exercise in the extreme. The subtle carefully conceived drawings have to be comprehensible by people from many diverse cultures and countries. An image, a color can have one association in one country and the opposite in another, Orzuj insinuates rather than shouts out her commentaries In her drawings, Raquel Orzuj focusses on violation of human rights, at all levels; she specializes in those of children, the violence against women of and discrimination, in tis many forms.

In an interview with Fernando Puente, published in La Opinión de la Gente de Montevideo, Orzuj explains:

“The most fascinating part, for me, is to publish and participate in contests in Europe and Asia, a cultural challenge, but also of gender, given the scarcity of women in the field—even today in the twenty-first century—Editorial Cartoonists. The professional goals and objectives are dynamic and permanent, the avalanche of motivations, united with technology, requires quickness of creative energy, multiplying in a surprising manner the possibilities of being.”

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Unas cartunes de temática judía/Some cartoons with Jewish themes:

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Golde Meir

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Five Hundred Years of Jewish Life in the Americas

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Shaná Tová

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Carlos Szwarcer– Escritor judío-argentino/Argentine-Jewish Writer — “El Café Izmir”/”The Izmir Café”

Carlos Szwarcer es historiador, periodista y cuentista judío-argentino. Es especialista en la historia de los sefardíes en la Argentina y ha coleccionado muchos testimonios orales de la gente vieja sefardí de los barrios de Buenos Aires.

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Carlos Szwarcer is a Jewish-Argentine historian, journalist and short-story writer. He is a specialist in the history of Sephardic Jews of Argentina, and he has collected many oral testimonies from older people in Sephardic neighborhoods of Buenos Aires.

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AMBIENTE Y MANJARES DEL IZMIR

Los testimonios muestran que la generalidad de los sefaradíes sentían orgullo por ese café tan pintoresco y sitio de recreación de gente mayoritariamente humilde. De los pocos que tenían “un buen pasar” cuatro o cinco solían pedir “una vuelta” de café o rakí (anís) para veinte o treinta parroquianos, visto esto como gesto de gentileza, camaradería o jadra (alarde, exhibición).

En verdad muchos se demoraban allí por las charlas, el rakí, la música oriental, los naipes, el table (backgamon), etc., pero, a pesar de ello, la inmensa mayoría lo recuerda como un lugar ameno y respetado, tal como lo podemos recrear a partir del siguiente collage testimonial surgido de antiguos vecinos y habitúes: “…el café lzmir en su momento era tradición… era importante.. .era una reliquia de Buenos Aires, de Villa Crespo. Ahí se sentaba gente grande de nuestra colectividad, iban camino al templo…a tomar un café. también la colectividad armenia, la griega, la musulmana…no había odios…en paz… en aquel tiempo eran todos respetados, amables…era un lugar donde gente de Montevideo venia y el lugar para ver a los ‘yidios’ era el lzmir, como punto de reunión…como punto de referencia.” 

De las tantas actividades que ofrecía el café, el esparcimiento obviamente era el Ieit motiv Sin embargo no podemos dejar de re­conocerle, especialmente en las décadas del 30’ y el ‘40, una de tipo social y hasta educativa: “…se jun­taban en una mesa a la mañana y empezaban a hablar, a leer el diario… Habla uno que leía el diario al revés, no me acuerdo el nombre; lo leía todo, todo, se ponía a leer así… (con la hoja al revés), se ponía en el lzmir, en la ventanita… Se reunía la gente, como muchos no sabían leer’, él agarraba y leía al revés, pero leía como si fuera al derecho, no se equivocaba nunca. Lo ví yo…”  afirma Jacobo .C

THE CAFÉ IZMIR’S AMBIENCE AND DELICACIES

Their testimonies show that the majority of the Sephardic Jews were proud of that café, so picturesque and a place for recreation for people, most of them of modest means. Of the few who had “un buen pasar” (were well-off,) four or five tended to ask for “una vuelta”  (another round} of coffee or raki (anise) for twenty or thirty regular customers, which was seen as an act of generosity, camaraderie or jadra (a show, exhibition.)

Surely, many hung around there for the conversation, the raki, the oriental music, the card playing, the table (backgammon) etc., but in spite of that, the immense majority remembered it as a pleasant and respectable place, to the extent that we can recreate it from the following nominal collage of statements form former neighbors and habitués: the café Izmir at its time was a tradition   . . .it was important. . .it was a relic of Buenos Aires, of Villa Crespo. There sat the older members of our community, they were on the way to temple. . .to have a cup of coffee, also, the Armenian, Greek and Muslim communities. . .there weren’t any hatreds. . .all received respect, well-mannered. . .it was the place where people from Montevideo came and the place to see the “yidios” de Izmir, as a meeting place   . . .as a reference point.

Of the many activities, the café offered, relaxation was the Ieit motiv. Nevertheless, especially in the decades of the 30s and 40s, there was another one that was social and even educational “they met at a table in the morning and they began to speak, to read the paper. . .There was one of theme who read the newspaper backwards, I don’t remember his name: he read everything, everything, he sat down to read in this manner. . . (with the page backwards,) he sat down in the Izmir, near the window. . .The people came together, as many didn’t know how to read, he grabbed it and read it backwards, but he read it as if it were face up, He never made a mistake, I saw him…Jacob C. affirmed.

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SONIDOS Y DANZAS DE ORIENTE

En la plenitud del Café Izmir, Alboger poseía una importante co­lección de discos de pasta de mú­sica oriental, especialmente turca y griega, con la que se solazaban los parroquianos. El chiftetelli invadía el local y su ritmo llegaba distorsio­nado a la vereda, al tiempo que en las mesas se jugaba a las barajas o se deleitaban con un buen mezé (especie de picadita de platitos tí­picos: queso blanco, aceitunas, rabanitos, pepinos, huevo duro, etc.), que ayudaba a incorporar más dignamente en el organismo los “vapores etílicos’ diversos.

El humo permanente del salón se espesaba cuando en la peque­ña parrilla de la cocina se asaban trozos de carne, a veces picada para su justa cocción, que hacían girar lentamente en unos pinches metálicos. Colocaban un par de esas albóndigas, acompañadas por un menjunje parecido a una ensa­lada dentro de un pan árabe (pita) cortado al medio. El shishe como llamaban a ese delicioso sandwich, era saboreado con un invariable ritual de malabares para no man­charse la ropa con el jugo que se escapaba por los costados del pan.

Pero en horas de la noche, esos hombres con sombrero e infaltable corbata o pañuelo al cuello, llegaban al paroxismo cuando el sonido provenía de la orquesta oriental: mandolín, laúd, kanún (instrumento de cuerda ejecutado con plectros), pandereta, dumblek (tambor pe­queño), violín, etc. y a su ritmo bailaban hombres y mujeres, solos o en pareja, y como verdadera atracción las odaliscas con sus pe­chos semidescubiertos, sombreros cónicos y velos endemoniados.

Madame Jeannette, Flora, Madame Flash, Milí, las Livías, y tantas otras fueron las bailarinas que ale­graron el ambiente según pasaron los años. Pero los hombres no le fueron a la saga en cuanto al baile, fue famoso Abraham Sadrinas, quien con rítmicos movimientos mantenía una botella en su cabeza mientras también hacía sonar dos cucharas a modo de castañuelas. Otro, Elías Bajar, era llamado por las orquestas que iban al café por su calidad de gran bailarín.

El Izmir ofrecía un ámbito para la magia, el ensueño y la sensualidad a un público casi exclusivamente machista. Aquellos varones que lo frecuentaban para acortar la dis­tancia entre la Reina del Plata y sus lejanos pueblos de mar se casa­ban. La ceremonia religiosa, con ritual sefaradí, se iniciaba general­mente a la vuelta, en el Gran Tem­plo de Camargo 875 y algunos mozos del lzmir se convertían en “mozos de boda”. Y cuando al tem­plo le faltaban hombres para llegar al número mínimo necesario para los rezos (minyám) al primer lugar al que acudían era al café, el cual con acierto fue descrito como “…Ins­titución y… Secretaría informal de la comunidad”. 

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SOUNDS AND DANCES OF THE ORIENT 

At the height of the Café Izmir’s popularity, Alboger, the owner, possessed an important collection of eastern music, especially Turkish and Greek, that the regular customers enjoyed. The chiftetelli invaded the place, and its distorted rhythm was heard on the sidewalk, while at the tables, they played cards or were delighted by a good mezé (little plates of typical hors d’œrves: white cheese, olives, small radishes, peppers, that helped incorporate into the locale, in a more dignified fashion, the diverse “alcoholic vapors.”

The permanent smoke of the salon got heavier when a small grill in the kitchen broiled pieces of meat, sometimes chopped for proper boiling, which that they turned slowly with some metal tongs. They placed a pair of these meatball, accompanied by a concoction similar to a salad inside of Arabic bread (pita) cut in half. The shishe as they called this delicious sandwich, was savored with an invariable ritual of juggling so as not to stain one’s clothing with the juice that was escaping from the sides of the bread.

However, at night, these men, wearing hats or the indispensable tie or kerchief at the neck, reached a fever pitch, when the sound of coming from an oriental orchestra: mandolin, laud, kanun (a string instrument played with picks,) tambourine, dumblek (a small drum,) violin, etc., to whose rhythm men and women danced, alone or in couples, and as a true attraction, the “harem girls” with their half-exposed breasts, comic hats and devilish veils.

Madame Jeannette, Flora, Madame Flash, Milí, las Livías and so many others were the dancers who cheered the atmosphere with the passing of the years. But, the men weren’t surpassed in dancing. Abraham Sadrinas, who, with rhythmical movements, kept a bottle on his head while he also made two spoons sound like castanets. Another, Elias Bajar, because of his great dancing skills, was called to the stage by orchestras who were playing at the café.

The Izmir offered an atmosphere for magic, dreaming and sensuality an almost exclusively chauvinist audience. Those men who frequented it to shorten the distance between the Kingdom of the Plata and their faraway seaside towns, married there. The religious ceremony, with Sephardic ritual, generally began around the corner at the Great Temple at 875 Camargo Street, and some waiters from the Izmir became “groomsmen.” And when at the temple, there weren’t enough men to form the number necessary for prayer (minyan,) the first place they went to look for others was the café, which was accurately described as the “Informal Institution and Secretariat of the community.”

Translations by Stephen Sadow

 

Ricardo Feierstein — Escritor argentino-judío/Argentine-JewishWriter “Nostalgia gastronómica” “Gastronomic Nostalgia” —

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KÁCHKALE

Por

Ricardo Feierstein

 

¿Quién llama aún para un derroche sin freno? 

El tesoro entreabierto de las nubes que acompañaron nuestra vida.

RENÉ CHAR

Dicen que uno nunca olvida las canciones de cuna y el sabor de las comidas maternas. Pero, en este último, puede modificarse el orden de preferencias.

Mis convicciones sobre los platos judíos comenzaron con una tabla de posiciones -inevitable en un niño amante del fútbol- que estipulaba ante todos sus familiares:

 1) Varénikes de papa y cebolla con manteca.                                                                         2) Knéidalej (ídem con manteca y colesterol, la gordura es salud).                        3) Guefilte Fish.

Et cetera.

Este posicionamiento tenía origen en un trauma infantil: Juana-Jane, mi abuela materna, invitaba los domingos a almorzar, en una gran mesa donde entrábamos cerca de veinte comensales. Siempre aplicaba el mismo truco, en el que caíamos los ingenuos: un primer plato con ensalada mixta, pan y enorme bife con lomo que debía pesar medio kilo, para evitar que los kinderlej quedaran con hambre. Y un poco después, ya casi al límite de nuestro estómago, fuentes rebsosantes de varénikes (que los chicos llamábamos varénekes con una vocal más argentina) imposibles de terminar, con la consiguiente frustración. Eran tan deliciosas esas orgías que una de mis primas le pidió, como regalo de cumpleaños, que decorara las paredes de su habitación con varénikes, para poder despegar algunos cuando se tentara.

Con los años, no obstante, maduramos. Desde mi entrada a la adolescencia, seguí siendo fanático de San Lorenzo (a pesar de frecuentes frustraciones cada campeonato) pero, aunque mi madre heredó a la perfección aquella especialidad gastronómica, cambié radicalmente el fixture.  Con la velocidad del rayo, el “cogote (de gallina) relleno” que ella luego aportó al menú, ascendió al tope de la tabla y jamás pudo ser desalojado. La receta, lamentablemente, no se transmitió en la tradición familiar y desapareció junto a su extrañada portadora. Es un plato muy trabajoso, ya que la piel del cuello de la gallina debe ser cosido a mano -luego de recibir un relleno inigualablemente sabroso cuyos ingredientes desconozco- y es habitual que la aguja rompa la débil capa de afuera, por lo que debe trabajarse lentamente y con mucha paciencia, una verdadera artesanía. La salsa especial que decoraba cada rodaja servida en los platos completaba ese placer de dioses, que incluía por supuesto la ingestión, también del epitelio que la envolvía (hace unos años no se hablaba tanto de placas de grasa en nuestra sangre).

Dos curiosidades, si se me permite.

Los atracos gastronómicos preparados por mi abuela que hasta su último día me llamaba “mi general”, sobrenombre adjudicado por ser nieto primogénito) mezclaban el afecto familiar con deseos de salud para los descendientes, algo que para humildes inmigrantes se traducía en abundancia alimentaria.

Por otro lado, al “cogote relleno” comenzamos a llamarlo guérgale (“cogotito”) a secas, ante nuestra dificultad para pronunciar la eslava palabra “heltzl”, con la “h” aspirada. Pero, ante la tozudez de mi hermano menor -que se resistía a ingerir un plato con ese nombre por sus sangrientas connotaciones-  le sirvieron, durante toda su niñez, esa misma  delicia pero con el apodo de káchkale(“patito”), neologismo inventado por mi progenitora para vencer sus resistencias.

En este caso no se aplicó el refrán “gato por liebre”, sino el de “gallina por pato…”.

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Verénikes

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Knéidalej

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Guefilte fish

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KÁCHKALE

By  

Ricardo Feierstein

 

Who still calls for an overflowing without halt?

The half-open treasure that accompanied our lives

RENÉ CHAR

 

It’s said that you never forget lullabies and the taste of your mother’s cooking. But, when speaking of the last, it’s possible a is possible to put your preference in order.  My convictions about Jewish dishes with Yiddish names began with a ranking of positions – inevitable in a child, a fútbol lover–who asked for them in the presence of all of his family members:

1) varénikes (verenykys, dumplings) of potatoes with onion and butter.            2) kneidalaj (kneidelach) similar with butter and cholesterol, being overweight means being healthy.                                                                                                                            3) guefilte fish (gefilte fish)

Et cetera.

This ordering had its origins in an infantile trauma. Juana-Chana, my maternal grandmother, invited us to lunch on Sundays, at a large table where we could fit nearly twenty guests. She always played the same trick, into which we the naïve fell: the first course, a mixed salad, bread and an enormous filet of beef that must have weighted more than a pound, to avoid leaving the kinderlaj (kids) hungry. And a bit latter, our stomachs nearly at their limits, overflowing platters of varénikes (which we kids called que varénekes, with a more Argentine sounding vowel) impossible to finish, with the accompanying frustration. These orgies were so delicious that one of my female cousins asked her grandmother, as a birthday present, to cover the walls of her room with varénikes, so that she could take some down whenever she was tempted.

With the passing of the years, however, we matured. Since entering adolescence, I continued being a fan of San Lorenzo (despite the frequent frustration which occurred with each championship) but although my mother inherited, to perfection, that gastronomic specially, I radically changed my favorites.

With the velocity of lightning, the “stuffed neck” (of a hen) that my grandmother added to the menu later on, rose to the top of the list and never could be evicted. The recipe, lamentably, was not transmitted through family tradition and disappeared together with its greatly missed bearer. It is a dish that requires a great deal of work, as the skin of the hen’s neck has to be sewn by hand–after receiving a filling of unsurpassed flavor whose ingredients I just don’t know—as it often happens that the needle breaks the thin outside layer, so the work needs to be done slowly and with much patience, a true craft. The special sauce that decorated every slice served on plates completed this pleasure of the gods, that, of course, also included the ingestion of the epithelium that surrounded it (years ago, you didn’t talk about fatty plaque in the blood.)

If you will permit me two curiosities.

The gastronomic assaults prepared by my grandmother who until her last day called me “My General,” a nickname awarded me for being her oldest grandchild, mixed family affection with wishes for health for her descendants, something that for humble immigrants translated into an abundance of food.

On the other hand, we began to call the “stuffed hen’s neck” “guérgale (“little neck”) simply, because of our difficulty in pronouncing the Slavic word heltzl, with its aspiraded “h”. But, against the stubbornness of my younger brother—whorefused to injest a dish with that name with its bloody connotations—during his entire childhood, they served him the same delicacy, but called it káchkale(“little duck”,) a neologism invented my grandmother to overcome his resistance.

In this case, the refrain “to give a cat for a hare” (meaning to deceive) was replaced with “a hen for a duck. . .”.

Translation by Steve Sadow

An Introduction to an Anthology of Latin American Jewish Literature/Una introducción a una antología de literatura judío-latinoamericana/Uma Introduçăo de Uma Antologia de Literatura Latino-Americana Judaica

Go to Site–Click Obras/Works on top of page
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In English/En Español/Em Portugués

INTRODUCTION 

This anthology is filled with miracles. There is joy and mourning, realism and fantasy, emotion and reflection. The works appear here exactly as they were written, in Spanish, English and Portuguese. The literature in this volume is mature, profound and unique. This collection brings together ninety-seven poets, fiction writers, autobiographers, critics of literature and culture. It is a demonstration of the enormous creativity possessed by Jews dispersed over the enormity of Latin America and also in the United States, Israel, France and Spain. Despite the fact that many of them have lived through populist governments, dictatorships, anti-Semitism, endemic economic and political crises, these writers and artists have continued to produce extraordinary literature and art.

Theirs is a mestizo culture, as Ricardo Feierstein would say, influenced by their Hispanic and Brazilian surrounding, and at the same time, strongly tied to Jewish traditions and ways of thinking. For political or personal reasons, some of the writers have left their home country and live in another, thus forming yet another Diaspora. Included here are new versions of Biblical and Talmudic stories, poems of love and of hate, lamentations for the losses of the Holocaust, memories of Jewish childhoods in unusual circumstances, and verses dedicated to Buenos Aires, Havana and Jerusalem. The selections contain rabbis and Nazis, Jewish gauchos and Jewish urban cowboys, observant Jews and non-believers, Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews. All the selections
were written since 1980 and the great majority since 1990.Taken
together, they form a panorama of contemporary Jewish Latin
American literature and culture.

Latin American Jewish literature is a minority literature, but it is not a minor literature. It has a history of a hundred and thirty-year history. It has its founders -Alberto Gerchunoff, Enrique Espinoza, Lázaro Liacho – ; its classic writers – Bernardo Verbitsky, Alberto Dines, César Tiempo, Elisa Lerner – ; and its modern period, the writers brought together in this anthology. Many writers have been awarded important national and international fellowships – Guggenheim, MacArthur, and Fulbright. Others have won highly-contested prizes: Norma, Planeta, Fernando Jeno, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz and Javier Villaurrutia – awards that are highly prestigious in Latin America.

There are hundreds of novels, books of short stories and of poetry, dramas, film scripts, memoirs, literary, cultural and social commentaries, and journalism. Established writers, like Marcos Aguinis, Moacyr Scliar, Marjorie Agosín and Ilán Stavans sell thousands of copies of their books while new writers engage in subsidized or self-publication. There are important publishing houses in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Mexico and Spain– Sudamericana, Planeta, Plaza y Janés, Alfaguara– that bring out books with Jewish themes and smaller houses, such as Editorial Milá and Acervo Cultural in Buenos Aires, that specialize in publishing works on Jewish topics and who actively participate in Jewish, local, and national book fairs. In the United States, the University of New Mexico Press published a twenty-two-volume series of Jewish Latin American literature, the majority of them in English translation. Recently published books are reviewed
in both the Jewish and national presses. From Mexico to Uruguay, and especially in Argentina, Jewish novelists, artists and screen writers examine and often influence the cultural life of their respective countries.
And, in the United States, Brazil, and Italy, graduate students
write their doctoral theses about Latin American Jewish topics. Every year, more American, Argentine and Brazilian universities offer courses that deal
with Jewish Latin American literature and culture. A long list of novels, books of short stories, and poetry have been translated into English, German and Italian among other languages.

In this anthology, the predominant themes are: identity and its corollary, memory, the Jewish family, the Jewish religion as practiced in Latin America -its customs and peculiarities, Jewish history – in particular, ,the Biblical period, the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions, the waves of immigration to Latin America, the many dictatorships – in particular, “The Proceso” (the ” Dirty War”) in Argentina, the Holocaust and the State of Israel. As this literature is not only Jewish but most decidedly Latin American, the history, the geography, and the everyday life in Mexico City, Buenos Aires or San José frequently app ear on these pages. Yet other writers concentrate on life’s intimate details.

INTRODUCCIÓN

Esta antología está llena de milagros. Hay alegría y tristeza, realismo y
fantasía, emoción y reflexión. Las obras aparecen aquí tal y como fueron escritas, en castellano, inglés y portugués. Esta antología proporciona una vía para conocer una literatura madura y coherente, profunda y única, escrita por judíos de América Latina. Aquí se conocerá la producción de noventa y siete poetas, narradores, memorialistas y críticos de literatura y cultura. Esta colección de literatura y ensayos sobre cultura es una muestra de la vasta creatividad judía dispersa por el inmenso territorio de Latinoamérica y, además, por los Estados Unidos, Israel, Francia y España. Incluye nuevas versiones de historias bíblicas, poemas de amor y de odio lamentaciones sobre el Holocausto, recuerdos de infancias judías en circunstancias poco usuales, y versos dedicados a Buenos Aires, La Habana y Jerusalén. Aparecen rabinos y nazis, gauchos
judíos y judíos urbanos, judíos observantes y judíos laicos, judíos
asquenazíes cuyos antepasados inmigraron de Rusia y el este de Europa
y sefardíes cuyos ancestros inmigraron de Turquía, Grecia, Siria y el
norte de África. Todas las selecciones fueron escritas después de 1980 y
la gran mayoría después de 1990. En conjunto, forman un panorama
amplio de la literatura judía latinoamericana contemporánea.
La cultura judía latinoamericana es, como diría Ricardo Feierstein,
una cultura mestiza, influida por el ambiente hispano o brasileño y, al
mismo tiempo, fuertemente inspirada por la mentalidad y las tradiciones judaicas. Por razones políticas o personales, varios de estos escritores han abandonado sus países de nacimiento para vivir en el extranjero, formando así otra diáspora.

La literatura judía latinoamericana es una literatura de minorías, pero
no es una literatura menor. Tiene una historia de cien años de expresión literaria y artística. Tiene sus fundadores -Alberto Gerchunoff, Enrique Espinosa, Carlos Grünberg; sus escritores clásicos – Bernardo Verbitsky, Alberto Dines, César Tiempo, Elisa Lerner; su época contemporánea- es decir, los autores que aparecen en esta antología. A muchos escritores se les ha otorgado becas de importancia internacional -Gugenheim, MacArthur y Fulbright. Otros han ganado premios de renombre en Latinoamérica – Norma, Planeta, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Fernando Jeno, Javier Villarrutia y muchos más. Han publicado centenares de novelas, libros de cuentos, poemarios, dramas, guiones. memorias, y comentarios literarios, culturales, periodísticos y sociales. Escritores establecidos como Marcos Aguinis, Moacyr Scliar, Marjorie Agosín e llán Stavans venden millares de ejemplares de sus libros, mientras que los escritores que comienzan reciben subsidios para publicar o se auto-editan en pequeños tirajes. Hay casas editoriales importantes que publican libros de temática judaica – Sudamericana, Planeta, Alfaguara, Plaza y Janés -, y otras más pequeñas – como Editorial Milá y Acervo Cultural en Buenos Aires – que se especializan en lo judaico y que participan activamente en ferias del libro judías, tanto locales como nacionales. En los Estados Unidos, la Editorial de la Universidad de Nuevo México publicó una serie de veintidós volúmenes de literatura y cultura judía latinoamericanas, la mayoría de ellos traducidos al inglés. Reseñas de libros recién publicados aparecen regularmente en la prensa judía y nacional. Desde México hasta Uruguay, y especialmente en Argentina, escritores, cineastas y artistas judíos examinan y, a menudo, influyen en la vida cultural de sus países. Y en los Estados Unidos, Brasil e Italia, estudiantes de postgrado escriben tesis doctorales sobre temas judío latinoamericanos; cada año, más universidades norteamericanas y brasileñas ofrecen cursos sobre esta cultura. Existen numerosas traducciones de libros judío-latinoamericanos al inglés, alemán, italiano y otras lenguas

En esta literatura los temas que predominan son la identidad y la memoria, las familias judías, la religión judía – sus costumbres y particularidades – , la historia judía – en particular, la época de la Biblia, la Inquisición, la inmigración a América Latina y las dictaduras latinoamericanas, especialmente el Proceso, (“La Guerra Sucia”) en Argentina – ; el Holocausto y el Estado de Israel. Al ser esta literatura no solamente judía, sino profundamente latinoamericana también, la historia, la geografía y la vida cotidiana en Buenos Aires, México, D. F. y San José sirven como fuentes de inspiración frecuentes. Además, algunos escritores, especialmente los poetas, se concentran en la vida íntima.

INTRODUÇẤO

A presente Antologia está repleta de milagres. Aqui se encontram alegría e tristeza, realismo e fantasia, emoções e refleções. Os trabalhos recolhidos sao apresentados exatamente como estao nos originais em espanhol, inglés e portugués. A literatura representada neste volume é madura, profunda e inédita. A coletanea reúne noventa escritores entre poetas, ficcionistas, autobiógrafos e críticos literários e culturais. É urna amostra da enorme criatividade que possuem os judeus dispersos pela imensidao da América Latina e também nos Estados Unidos, Israel, França e Espanha. Apesar de que muitos entre eles tenham vivido em, tais como governos demagógicos populistas, ditaduras, anti- condições adversas semitismo, crises políticas e economicas endémicas, es ses escritores e artistas nao pararam de produzir urna literatura e urna arte extraordinárias.

Como Ricardo Feierstein diria, a cultura desses escritores é mestiça,
influenciada pelas atmosferas hispanica e brasileira circundantes, mas
eles também conservaram, ao mesmo tempo, fortes ligações com a
tradições e o pensamento judaicos. Alguns deles, por razoes políticas ou pessoais, deixaram seu país de origem para viver em outro, formando entao urna nova Diáspora. Aqui estao incluídos novas versoes de histórias bíblicas e do Talmude, poemas de amor e de ódio, lamentações pelas perdas sofridas no Holocausto, lembranças de urna infancia judaica em circunstancias anormais, e versos dedicados a Buenos Aires, Havana e Jerusalém. Os personagens incluem rabinos e nazistas, judeus gaúchos e vaqueiros urbanos, judeus que conservam a religiao e os nao-crentes, judeus asquenasitas e sefaraditas. Todos os escritos foram compostos a partir de 1980 e a maior parte deles, desde 1990. A coletanea permite urna visao panoramica da literatura e da culturajudaica latino-americana contemporanea.

A literatura latino-americana judaica é urna literatura de minoria,
mas nao é urna literatura minoritária. Ela já tem 130 anos de história. E
tem também seus fundadores – Alberto Gerchunoff, Enrique Espinoza,Lázaro Liacho – seus es critores clássicos – Bernardo Verbistky, Alberto Dines, César Tiempo, Elisa Lerner -; e seu período moderno, como os escritores representados na presente Antologia. Muitos entreos escritores sáo reconhecidos em ambitos nacional e internacional,
como organizações Guggenheim, MacArthur e Fulbright. Outros receberam premios altamente competitivos, como os Norma, Planeta,Fernando Jeno, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz e Javier Villaurrutia -galardoes que sao de alto prestígio na América Latina. Numa soma entre eles, estes escritores já publicaram centenas de romances, livros de contos e de poesia, peças teatrais, scripts para o cinema, memórias, comentários literários, culturais e sociais, e trabalhos jornalísticos.
Escritores de renome, como Marcos Aguinis, Moacyr Scliar, Marjorie Agosín e Ilán Stavans vendem milhares de cópias de seus livros enquanto que novos escritores começam sua carreira com publicações subsidiadas ou por conta-própria. Há editoras muito importantes na Argentina, no Brasil, no Peru, México e na Espanha – como a Sudamericana, Perspectiva, Planeta, Plaza y Janés, Alfaguara- que publicam obras com temas judaicos, assim como há editoras menores, como a Editorial Milá e Acervo Cultural em Buenos Aires, especializada em trabalhos com tópicos judaicos e que participa ativamente de feiras nacionais, locais e judaicas. Nos Estados Unidos, a imprensa da Universidade de New Mexico publicou urna série de vinte e dois volumes na área de literatura judaica latino-americana, a maior parte deles em versão ao inglés. Obras publicadas recentemente são resenhadas tanto na imprensa em geral como na judaica. Romancistas, artistas e escritores cinematográficos judeus, do México ao Uruguai, e principalmente na Argentina, examinam e com freqüencia influenciam a vida cultural de seus respectivos países. Nos Estados Unidos, no Brasil na Argentina, na Itália, estudantes de pós-graduação escrevem teses de doutoramentoversando tópicos judaicos latino-americanos. A cada ano que passa, mais universidades americananas brasileiras e argentinas oferecem cursos sobre a literatura a cultura judaicas na América Latina. Urna imensa lista de romances, livros de contos e poesia foram traduzidos ao inglés, alemão e italiano, entre outros idiomas.

Nesta Antologia, os temas predominantes săo: identidade e sua seqüencia, que é a memória, a família judaica, a religião judaica como praticada na América Latina – seus costumes e suas particularidades, a história judaica – principalmente o período bíblico, as Inquisições espanholas e portuguesas, as ondas imigratórias, as inúmeras ditaduras – em particular, “O Processo” (a “Guerra Suja”) na Argentina, o Holocausto e o Estado de Israel. Como esta literatura nao é apenas judaica, mas sim latino-americana em sentido mais amplo, a história, a geografia, e a vida cotidiana, seja na cidade do México, em Buenos Aires ou em Sao José, aparecem com freqüencia nestas páginas. Outros escritores se preocupam com aspectos intimistas da vida.

 

 

José Luis Fariñas — Artista visual y poeta judío-cubano/Cuban Jewish Artist and Poet — “La Cábala “The Kabbalah”

El artista plástico cubano-judío  José Luis Fariñas tiene renombre internacional com dibujante y acuarelista. obra es muy compleja, muy detallada y a menudo hermética. Su trabajo muestra la influencia de Dürer, Bosch and Rembrandt. Figuras del Viejo Testamento y temas cabalísticos aparecen con frecuencia en su arte.

The Cuban-Jewish artist José Luis is an internationally-known drawer and aquarellist. His work is complex, highly detailed and often hermetic. His work is influenced by Dürer, Bosch and Rembrandt. Figures from the Old Testament and Kabbalist themes appear frequently in his art.

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Los cabalistas escribían en prosa sus comentarios sobre los misterios del cosmos; como artista plástico, Fariñas dibuja y pinta con óleos y acuarelas para expresar sus interpretaciones cabalísticas.

The Kabbalists wrote their commentaries on the mysteries of the cosmos in prose. José Luis Fariñas draws and paints with watercolors and oils to express his Kabbalistic interpretations.

ADAM CADMON

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Adán Cadmon es el hombre antes del hombre antes del hombre (cuatro pasos); es mítico, tiene una forma casi antropomórfica. Aquí, Adam Cadmon mismo está en desarrollo; es como si fuera una crisálida. Se supone que evolucionará a la figura que desde los orificios de su “cuerpo” salen las emanaciones.

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Adam Cadmon is the man before the man before the man before the man (four stages): He is mythical: his form is almost anthropomorphic. In this work, Adam Cadmon himself is in the process of development. It is if he were in a chrysalis. It is likely that he will evolve into the figure from whom the orifices of his” body” will give forth the emanations.

EL PATRIARCA POR LA LUZ DE LAS SEFIROT/THE PATRIARCH BY THE LIGHT OF THE SEFIROT

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¿Es Abraham, Moisés u otro patriarca? Pero no importa el nombre sino la esencia. Expresa una síntesis de los patriarcas como símbolo del espíritu del pueblo hebreo en sus éxodos; pero no es el patriarca que se espera: va como mal vestido, parece deshecho. Y en una obra dedicada a las sefirot, el artista no pretende mostrarlas, ni siquiera su luz emitida: solo efluvios metamorfoseados, la caída, la rotura, la simbiosis en miniaturas imperceptibles.

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Is he Abraham, Moises or another Jewish patriarch? But the name is not important, rather the essence. He expresses a synthesis of the patriarch as a symbol of the spirit of the Jewish people during its exoduses. But this the presentation of a Patriarch that one expects. He is poorly dressed; he is damaged. And in a work dedicated to the sefirot, they are not evident, not even their light, only the fall of the vessels, their rupture and symbiosis.

EL MILAGRO DE LAS PARADOJAS (Y LAS CONTRADICCIONES/THE MIRACLE OF THE PARADOXES (AND THE CONTRADICTIONS)

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En la Cábala, cada cosa o persona lleva en sí infinitas contradicciones. Aquí las paradojas se confrontan y se imbrican. No hay balance. La curva a la derecha es mucho más ancha, espesa y compleja que la izquierda. En ella, hay muchas cabezas de pájaros y aun una pierna humana. Además, Fariñas, en otras obras, se concentra en la unión de opuestos.

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In the Kabbalah, every person or thing carries within it infinite contradictions. Here paradoxes confront each other and interweave. There is no balance. The curve on the right is much wider, heavier and more complex than that on the left. In the arch on the right, there are many bird heads and even a human leg. In contrast, in other works, Fariñas concentrates on the union of opposites.

SITRA ARTRA, El MAL/SITRA ARTRA, EVIL

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La creación del mundo fue (y es) imperfecto. Al lado del bien se encuentra el Mal. Hay reaccionar, hacer Ticún. En el arte de Fariñas, la Sitra artra está presente con iconografía apocalíptica: hombres raros, y ángeles, diablos, bestias. En esta obra, hay un hombre furioso con humo saliendo de la boca. Lleva un yelmo. Apuntando hacia la dirección opuesta hay una ojiva o proyectil y un brazo humano. Abajo y a la derecha de esta obra está un huevo roto, sin signos de vida.

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The creation of the world was (and is) imperfect. It is necessary for man to react, to do Tikkun Olom, improve the world. In Fariñas’ art. The Sitra Artra, Evil, is shown through apocalyptic iconography: strange men, angels, devils and beasts. In this work, there is an irate man with smoke coming out of his mouth. He is wearing a helmet. Pointing in the opposite direction, there is an ogive or projectile and a human arm. Below on the right is a broken egg, without signs of life.

Intelectuales judío-mexicanos (2008)/ Mexican Jewish Intellectuals (2008)

Cafebrería El Péndulo-Polanco, México, D.F.

Jenny Asse Chayo, directora cultural/Cultural Director

Beto Buzali, Ivonne Saed, Regina Kalach Atri, organizadores del evento/organizers of the event

Presentación del Libro/New Book Presentation:

La literatura contemporánea judío-latinoamericana/ Contemporary Jewish Latin American Literature

Revista Hostos/Hostos Review, 4, 2007

Isaac Goldemberg, Redactor/Editor-in chief

Steve Sadow, Editor del número/Guest editor

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Panel: Steve Sadow, la escritora Angelina Muñiz-Huberman, el periodista José Gordon, la novelista Ivonne Saed

Hubo 90 asistentes en el aula de la librería.

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Panel: Steve Sadow Angelina Muñiz-Huberman, novelist, poet and essayist; José Gordon, journalist; Ivonne Saed, novelist

There were 90 people in the audience.

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El día siguiente, en la librería, hubo una discusión de sobre el tema: ¿Cómo es ser intelectual judío en México actual?

Participantes en la discusión: La escritora Liliana Blum, la filósofa Esther Charabati, el artista plástico-músico Moisés Zabludovsky, la novelista Ivonne Saed, la poeta Jenny Asse Chayo, la actriz Fanny Sarfati y Steve Sadow y otros.

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The following day, in the bookstore, a discussion was held on the topic: What is it like to be a Jewish intellectual in today’s Mexico?

Participants in the discussion: Liliana Blum, writer; Esther Charabati, philospher; Moisés Zabludovsky, artist and musician; Ivonne Saed, novelist; Jenny Asse Chayo; Fanny Sarfati, actress: Steve Sadow and others.

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Curso intensivo sobre la literatura judío-latinoamericana de Steve Sadow

En julio de 2009, di un curso de posgrado intensivo de cuatro clases en la Universidad Tres de Febrero (UNTREF), Buenos Aires, Argentina. He aquí el plan de estudios:

La literatura judío-latinoamericana

Profesor:   Stephen A. Sadow, PhD., Profesor Titular, Departamento de Lenguas Modernas, Northeastern University, Boston, MA  02115, EEUU.

Las lecturas son selecciones de:

Marjorie Agosin. “Querida Anne Frank/Dear Anne Frank (Chile),

Marcos Aguinis.  Asalto al paraíso. (Argentina), 

Isaac Goldemberg. Hotel Amérikka. (El Perú).

Jacqueline Goldberg, “Poemas” (Venezuela)

Susana Grimberg.  La mirada de Ana  (Argentina)

Ricardo Feierstein, La logia del umbral. (Argentina)

Ricardo Feierstein, Alberto Gerchunoff: Judío y argentino.  (Argentina)

Angelina Muñiz-Huberman   El sefaradí romántico. (México)

Samuel Rovinski, Cuentos judíos de mi tierra. (Costa Rica)

Primera clase

Situación histórica: La llegada de los primeros judíos a Latinoamérica y su desaparición rápida.  La colonización judía en Argentina y el Brasil. La inmigración judía al resto de Latinoamérica.

Reflexón literaria: El argentino Alberto Gerchunoff crea el mito del nuevo judío en la pampa.  La vida de Alberto Gerchunoff es un emblema por la vida de muchos argentinos y uruguayos.  César Tiempo y otros describen las tensiones de la sociedad. 

Segunda clase

Situación histórica: Hay migraciones desde el campo hacia los pueblos y las ciudades.  Antisemitismo y pluralismo. La adaptación (o mala adaptación) de los inmigrantes tempranos y sus relaciones con los no judíos.

Reflexión literaria: En su drama Hotel América, Isaac Goldemberg usa las técnicas del expresionismo demostrar las tensiones entre judíos y católicas en un pueblo campestre y en la capital del Perú. Samuel Rovinski en Cuentos judíos de mi tierra.(Costa Rica) muestra los judíos en un país acogedor.

Tercera clase

Situación histórica: En la víspera de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, muchos judíos huyen hacia América Latina.  Tratan de integrarse en los países donde se encuentran. Luego, la Shoa tuvo efectos directos e indirectos en Latinoamérica.

El mundo después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Los Perón.

Reflexión  literaria: Desde México, Angelina Muñiz-Huberman presenta Europa  y  México de los 1930s.  Dos poetas—la chilena Marjorie Agosín y la argentina Susana Grimberg dedican poemarios a Anne Frank.

Cuarta clase

Situación histórica:  La Guerra Fría.  Las dictaduras militares.  Las vueltas a la democracia.  La gran mayoría de los judíos latinoamericanos nacieron en América.  Aliyá a Israel por muchos. La vida contemporánea.                              . 

Reflexión literaria: Ricardo Feierstein examina la identidad judío-argentina en el mundo contemporáneo. Marcos Aguinis explora la mentalidad del terrorista. Jacqueline Goldberg escribe poemas sobre la adaptación de los judíos venezolanos. —  Muestra del arte judío-latinoamericano.

Pablo Freinkel, Escritor y filósofo judío-argentino/Argentine-Jewish Writer and Philosopher — “MAIMÓNIDES: El Profeta como Líder del estado” “MAIMONIDES: The Prophet as the Leader of the State”

Pablo A. Freinkel (Bahía Blanca, Argentina, 1957). Licenciado en Bioquímica. Periodista y escritor. Sus artículos y notas se han dado a conocer en Buenos Aires, New York y Jerusalem; y en medios online nacionales y extranjeros. Es autor de cuatro libros: Diccionario Biográfico Bahiense, el ensayo Metafísica y Holocausto, y las novelas El día que Sigmund Freud asesinó a Moisés y Los destinos sagrados. Escribió el guion del documental Matthias Sindelar: un gol por la vida. Ha dictado conferencias sobre Spinoza, Maimónides y literatura judía argentina actual, en diferentes instituciones del país. Actualmente, ha concluido la novela La casa de Caín y se encuentra en redacción El lector de Spinoza.

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Pablo A. Freinkel (Bahía Blanca, Argentina,) who has a degree in biochemistry. He is a journalist and writer. His articles and notes have been published in Buenos Aires, New York and Jerusalem, in Argentine and international online media. Freinkel is the author of four books: Diccionario Biográfico Bahiense, Metafísica y Holocausto, and the novel El día que Sigmund Freud asesinó a Moisés and Los destinos sagrados. He wrote the script for Matthias Sindelar: un gol por la vida. He has lectured on Spinoza, Maimonides and on contemporary Argentine-Jewish literature throughout Argentina. Recently, Freinkel completed La casa de Caín and his El lector de Spinoza is in press.

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MAIMÓNIDES: El profeta como líder del Estado

Por Pablo Freinkel

En el pensamiento de Maimónides (Moisés ben Maimón, 1135-1204), el nacimiento de {la organización estatal} se debe exclusivamente a la voluntad de Dios. En su monumental Guía de perplejos (9) (GP), el sabio andaluz distingue cinco facultades en el alma; la quinta es la intelectual o racional, que es propia del hombre y le permite vivir y convivir con sus semejantes. Fuera de la sociedad, es inconcebible la existencia del individuo; el hombre perece. La vida social le proporciona inclusive su bienestar físico (GP. 3,27). Todos los principios morales conciernen a la relación y trato del hombre con sus semejantes. Si una persona estuviese a solas, sin trato con ninguna otra, todos los principios morales serían innecesarios y no le añadirían perfección alguna. El objetivo final del hombre es obtener las más altas facultades intelectivas y las nociones que lo llevan a tener ideas metafísicas ciertas acerca de Dios, que es haber alcanzado su perfección; le otorga la inmortalidad, y es por razón de ella por lo que se le llama hombre sabio, esto es, el varón de buenos principios morales (GP. 3, 54). De esta manera, la ética de Maimónides se apoya en el elemento social, que da lugar a la política, es decir, al gobierno. Aquí, el autor de Mishné Torá, sigue a Aristóteles que en su tratado sobre la Política asegura que los hombres son por su naturaleza unos más aptos para mandar que otros y coloca en la cima de esa clasificación a los sabios (entre ellos, los filósofos) (10). Moshé ben Maimón entiende que ese sitial le corresponde al profeta. El modelo a seguir es Moisés por sus cualidades superlativas al dirigir el éxodo de los israelitas de Egipto, por quien el ensayista manifiesta su admiración. (GP. 2, 33, 35 y 39) ¿Cuál es el razonamiento que realiza? El hombre llega a su perfección cuando ha alcanzado el conocimiento de Dios y sus obras por vía de indagación intelectual; una vez llegado a este nivel, empieza a consagrarse a Él, robusteciendo la Inteligencia que es lo que nos une al Ser Supremo. Se trata de la síntesis entre razón y fe, filosofía y Torá, así puede comunicarse directamente con Dios y alcanzar la categoría de iluminado. A pesar de tener la capacidad de profetizar, una persona no adviene realmente profeta ya que hay que contar con la voluntad de Dios (GP. 3, 51). Además de las facultades morales y racionales, el espíritu profético debe darse en un hombre sabio, fuerte para dominar sus instintos y rico en conocimiento (GP. 2, 32; Carta a los judíos del Yemen, 46) (11). Estas son las características con que debería contar quien gobierne la sociedad. Cabe entonces preguntarse por qué no es suficiente con la fe en el Ser Supremo para conseguir las dotes de la profecía. Maimónides propone conocer los principios filosóficos para refutarlos con presteza cuando entren en colisión con los principios religiosos. Por ejemplo, en la Introducción del Libro Dos de la Guía de Perplejos anota puntillosamente las veintiséis proposiciones del griego con las cuales está de acuerdo, excepto la que habla de la eternidad del Universo. En páginas sucesivas, explica la manera en que adopta la doctrina aristotélica y sus coincidencias con la Escritura (GP. 2, 3 y 5). Por otra parte, entre los capítulos trece y treinta de la misma parte discute las diferentes teorías acerca del principio del Universo, teniendo a Aristóteles como eje central de su crítica (12). En consecuencia, resulta evidente que la concepción ética de Maimónides y, por consiguiente, el sistema político que de ella deriva está delimitado por un fuerte idealismo que lo hace atractivo aunque potencialmente de difícil sino de imposible cumplimiento, porque exige un componente religioso y metafísico que no todos los integrantes de la comunidad a la que va dirigido están dispuestos a aceptar. Algunos renglones más arriba, expresé que el autor de los Aforismos médicos tiene una relación amplia y dinámica con Aristóteles no sólo en lo que se refiere a sus reflexiones metafísicas, sino que también se sostiene en su elección de personas con atributos morales, intelectuales y capacidades de mando extraordinarias destinadas a ejercer el gobierno de una colectividad de hombres y mujeres con intereses, conductas y costumbres heterogéneos. Sin embargo, al elegir a Moisés como el modelo de líder, acota su actuación al tiempo –ciertamente prolongado- en que los israelitas erraron por el desierto, tarea que por supuesto le demandó un esfuerzo titánico.

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MAIMONIDES: The Prophet as  Leader of State O

By Pablo Freinkel

For Maimónides (Moses ben Maimon, 1135-1204), the birth of a political organization is exclusively dependent on the will of God. In his monumental Guide of the Perplexed, the Andalusian wise man distinguishes five faculties in the soul: the fifth being the intellectual or rational faculty, that belongs to man and permits him to live with and get along with others. Outside of society, the existence of the individual is inconceivable; man would perish. Social life provides even physical well-being (GP, 3:27.)

All moral principles concern man’s relationship with and treatment of others. If a person were alone, without having to deal with any other, moral principles would be unnecessary and would not add any improvement. Man’s most important objective is to obtain the highest intellectual development and the concepts that allow him to have metaphysical ideas about God, that is, to have reached perfection; this brings him immortality. For having done this, he is called a wise man, that is, a man of high moral principles. (GP, 3:54.) In this fashion, Maimonides’ ethics is based on the concept that the social element that leads to the political, that is, the government. Here, the author of the Mishne Torah, follows Aristotle, who in his treatise Politics argues that some men are by nature more capable than others for leadership; he puts wise men, among them, philosophers at the top of this classification (10.) For Moses ben Maimon, this role is that of the prophet. The model to be followed is Moses, for his superlative qualities in leading the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. (GP. 2, 33, 35 y 39) What is his reasoning?  Man reaches perfection when he has gained knowledge of God and his works by intellectual inquiry. Once having achieved this level, he begins to consecrate himself to God, strengthening the intelligence factor that unites him to the Eternal Being. It is a synthesis between reason, faith, philosophy and Torah, so that man can communicate directly with God and reach the level of being enlightened.  Despite having the ability to do prophesy, a person doesn’t really become a prophet on his own, since that depends on God’s will (GP. 3, 51).

In addition to the moral and rational faculties, the prophetic spirit, the prophetic spirit must be found in a wise man, who is strong enough to control his instincts and rich in knowledge (GP, 2:32, Letter to the Jews of Yemen, 46).

These are the characteristic that one who governs a society must have. Why then, it is not sufficient to have faith in the Supreme Being to obtain the gifts of prophesy? Maimonides insists that it is necessary to know philosophical principles in order to be able to refute them with alacrity, when they collide with religious principles. For example, in the Introduction to The Guide for the Perplexed, he carefully outlines the twenty-six propositions set out by Aristotle, with the exception of the one that speaks of the eternity of the Universe. He then explains the way in which he adopts Aristotelian doctrine and its coincidences with the Holy Scripture. (GP. 2, 3 y 5).

Elsewhere in that text, Maimonides discusses the different theories about the origin of the Universe, placing Aristotle in the center of his critique. Consequently, it the political system derived from this analysis is delimited by a fierce idealism that makes it attractive, though potentially difficult if not impossible to achieve, because he demands a religious and metaphysical component that not all of the members of the community to which it is directed are willing to accept.

Maimonides, the author of the Medical Aphorisms, has a broad and dynamic relationship with Aristotle’s work, not only in that which has to do with his metaphysical reflections, but also that it upholds the Greek’s contention that people with extraordinary moral and intellectual attributes and the capacity to lead are destined to govern a community of men and women with heterogeneous interests, conduct and customs. Nevertheless, by choosing Moses as his model leader, he narrows down its occurrence to the time—clearly quite prolonged—in which the Israelites wandered in the desert, a task that demanded from him a titanic effort.

Translation by Steve Sadow

LATIN AMERICAN JEWISH STUDIES ASSOCIATION

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LAJSA serves as a network for scholars who are working on related themes but who are geographically distant from one another. Members maintain contact with one another through the electronic listserv “LAJSA-List,” the News & Announcements on the website, regional and international scholarly conferences, and the online publication Latin American Jewish Studies, which carries critical reviews of new scholarly work, brief articles, interviews, and abstracts. Our members and subscribers include major research libraries as well as individual scholars and others with expertise in the field of Latin American Jewish Studies.

LAJSA sirve como red para investigadores que trabajan sobre temas afines pero que se encuentran geográficamente distanciados. Los miembros se mantienen en contacto a través la listserv electrónica “LAJSA-List”, News & Announcements (Noticias y Anuncios) en el sitio web, congresos académicos regionales e internacionales, y la publicación electrónica Latin American Jewish Studies, la cual incluye reseñas críticas de nuevos trabajos académicos, artículos breves, entrevistas y resúmenes abstractos. Nuestros miembros y suscriptores incluyen importantes bibliotecas de investigación así como investigadores individuales y otros expertos en el campo.

LAJSA funciona como uma rede internacional para investigadores que trabalham com temas em comum mas que se encontram em diferentes regiões do mundo. Os membros se mantêm em contato por meio da listserv electrónica “LAJSA-List”, News & Announcements (Notícias e Anúncios) no site web, congressos acadêmicos regionais e internacionais, e a publicação on-line Latin American Jewish Studies, que abrange resenhas de livros, artigos breves, entrevistas e sumários. Entre os nossos membros e assinantes encontram-se as mais importantes bibliotecas e instituições voltadas para a pesquisa, bem como professores e pesquisadores individuais.

LAJSA.ORG

Steve Sadow — The Task of the Translator of Latin American Jewish Literature/La tarea del traductor de literatura judío-latinoamericana

The Task of the Translator of Latin American Jewish Literature

By Steve Sadow

The task of the translator of Latin American Jewish texts is not only to translate; it is also to promote a little-known literature. It is to promote not only the work of specific authors but an entire literature. The translator is a collector of writers as much as literary works; he is an inter-cultural ambassador and even a literary agent, The translator chooses poets and fiction writers whose work he wishes to present the English-speaking world for the first time or, at least, add to what is already in print. The translator writes biographical notes, publishes articles about the works and perhaps edits anthologies.

Almost always, it is the translator who finds the places who publish translations. I have the good luck to have Jim Kates as a friend and as my poetry co-translator. Jim is an American poet and translates from French and Russian. He knows well the world of literary magazines. I know a great deal about the Jewish American press. The publication of each of my translations of four novels, an autobiography and many short-stories was aided by personal connections, the suggestion of an editor or another translator or even the author.

For example, we or I have published Jewish Latin American poetry and prose in: The Pig Iron Review, Review, Translation, The Plum Review, The Massachusetts Review, The Jewish Frontier, The Minnesota Review, Translation Review, Review, Hopscotch, Noir Online, Ford-Brown Publishers, University of New Mexico Press (all from the US), Stand (England), Cyphers (Ireland), Ars Interpres (Sweden), Shabdaguchha (Bangladesh), Acervo Cultural (Argentina) y La Tertulia (Uruguay).

The translator needs to employ non-traditional modalities to broadcast translations. Perla Badjer and Irene Jaievsky, two Argentine colleagues and I created fourteen artist’s books. Each one was made up of a poem, its translation into English and an artwork in which the artist reacted to the poem. In 2010, the collection was first exhibited at the Jewish Museum of Buenos Aires. Then, I took the books to fourteen institutions that included: El Péndulo-Polanco, a book store-café in Mexico City, the Argentine Consulate en New York, LAJSA Conferences in Arizona State University and the University of Texas-Austin, Emmanuel College, (a Catholic college in Boston), University of Denver and finally to the Schusterman Center of University of Texas-Austin where they are in permanent display.

The internet is an excellent for promoting translations Jewish Latin American literature, In the website “Latin Jewish Arts”, www.latinjewisharts.northeastern.edu can be found “A Voice among the Multitudes” that brings together translations of the works of thirteen poets, the catalogue of the artist’s books, and a twenty-fifth anniversary edition of We, The Generation in the Wilderness de Ricardo Feierstein. Many writers have added these translations to their own websites.

My blog:  https://jewishlatinamerica.wordpress.com already contains many translations, including those of my own work,

Moreover, another task of the translator is to establish and maintain good relationships and even friendships with the authors that he translates. Obviously, I am talking about living writers, bout even in the case of deceased authors, it is necessary to correspond with those who hold the copyrights to the works. The e-mails are innumerable. If the writer knows English, there is rarely a problem. He or she can give suggestions and comments on the unfinished translations. With those whose English is not so strong, it is necessary to be diplomatic.

The goal should be a kind of symbiosis. The author give permission for the translation to be done. He or she can explain local or antiquated vocabulary and clarify obscure images. Ricardo Feierstein defined words form lunfardo; Juana García Abás dicyphered Kabbalistic images for me. The translations have an effect on the careers for both author and translator: a work published in English and a Curriculum Vitae line.

I have had the privilege of translating writing by: Ricardo Feierstein, Isaac Goldemberg, César Tiempo, Marcos Aguinis, Moacyr Scliar, Angelina Muñiz-Huberman, Mario Goloboff, Juana García Abás, Jenny Asse Chayo, Daniel Chirom, José Pivín, Rosita Kalina, Miryam Gover de Nasatsky, Daniel Feierstein, Teodoro Ducach, Eliahu Toker and Charles Papiernik, a survivor of Auschwitz. In the future, I would like to translate the work of young Jewish Latin American writers, especially the poets.

La tarea del traductor de literatura judío-latinoamericana

Por Steve Sadow

La tarea del traductor de literatura judío-latinoamericana no es sólo traducir; es promover una literatura poco conocida. Es promotor no solamente de la obra de autores específicos sino toda una literatura. El traductor es un coleccionista de escritores tanto como obras; es un embajador inter-cultural y hasta un agente literario. El traductor elige a poetas y narradores cuya obra quiere mostrar por primera vez al mundo de habla inglés, o por lo menos, agregar a lo que ya existe impreso. El traductor escribe notas bibliográficas, publica artículos sobre los mismos autores y obras y tal vez, compone antologías

Casi siempre, es el traductor que encuentra los editores que publiquen las traducciones. Tengo la suerte de tener Jim Kates como amigo y mi co-traductor de poesía. Jim es poeta norteamericano y traductor del francés y del ruso. Conoce bien el mundo de las revistas literarias. Yo voy conociendo la prensa judía-norteamericana. La publicación de mis traducciones de cuatro novelas, una autobiografía y cuentos resultó de conexiones personales. O, me la pidió un editor, o, un amigo, otro traductor o el escritor mismo me puso en contacto con una prensa.

Para dar unos ejemplos, hemos o he publicado poesía y prosa judío-latinoamericana en: The Pig Iron Review, Review, Translation, The Plum Review, The Massachusetts Review, The Jewish Frontier, The Minnesota Review, Translation Review, Review, Hopscotch, Noir Online, Ford-Brown Publishers, University of New Mexico Press (todos de EEUU), Stand (Inglaterra), Cyphers (Irlanda), Ars Interpres (Suecia), Shabdaguchha (Bangladesh), Acervo Cultural (Argentina) y La Tertulia (Uruguay).

El traductor debe usar modalidades no tradicionales para hace conocidas al mundo las traducciones de literatura judío-latinoamericana. Con dos colegas argentinas Perla Badjer y Irene Jaievsky, armamos catorce libros de artista. Cada uno compone de un poema, su traducción al inglés y una obra de arte en la cual el artista reacciona al poema. La primera muestra tuvo lugar en el Museo Judío de Buenos Aires. Luego, yo llevé los libros a una serie de instituciones que incluyó: El Péndulo-Polanco Ciudad México, el Consulado de Argentina en Nueva York, los Congresos de LAJSA en Arizona State University y University of Texas-Austin, Emmanuel College, (una universidad católica en Boston), University of Denver y finalmente al Schusterman Center de University of Texas-Austin donde quedan en exhibición permanente.

Y el internet es foro excelente por las traducciones de obras judío-latinoamericanas. Dentro del sitio “Latin Jewish Arts”, www.latinjewisharts.northeastern.edu, se encuentran “Una voz entre las multitudes” que reúne traducciones de la poesía de trece poetas; el catálogo de los libros de artista; y una re-edición para el aniversario 25 del poemario We, The Generation in the Wilderness de Ricardo Feierstein. A sus propios sitios web, muchos de los escritores agregan las traducciones.

Además, es la tarea del traductor de establecer y sostener buenas relaciones y hasta amistades con los escritores cuyas obras traduce. Obviamente, hablo de escritores vivos, pero aún en casos de autores fallecidos, hay que tener correspondencia con los que tienen los derechos de autor. Los mails son de número infinito. Si el escritor sabe bien el inglés, casi nunca hay problema. Se le puede pedir sugerencias y comentarios.  Si su inglés no es tan fuerte, hay que usar la diplomacia.

La meta debe ser un tipo de simbiosis: El autor da permiso para la traducción. Puede explicar vocabulario local o anticuado o clarificar imágenes oscuras. Ricardo Feierstein me definó palabras de Lunfardo; Juana García Abás me decifró imágenes cabalistas. Las traducciones tienen un efecto sobre la carrera del autor y también del traductor: una obra publicada en ingléy una línea para el Curriculum Vitae para los dos.

He tenido el privilegio de traducir los escritos de: Ricardo Feierstein, Isaac Goldemberg, César Tiempo, Marcos Aguinis, Moacyr Scliar, Angelina Muñiz-Huberman, Mario Goloboff, Juana García Abás, Jenny Asse Chayo, Daniel Chirom, José Pivín, Rosita Kalina, Miryam Gover de Nasatsky, Daniel Feierstein, Teodoro Ducach, Eliahu Toker y Charles Papiernik, sobreviviente de Auschwitz. En el futuro, querría traducir las obras de escritores jóvenes judío-latinoamericanos, especialmente de los poetas.

 

HOMENAJE A CHARLES PAPIERNIK/ HOMAGE TO CHARLES PAPIERNIK– Polaco-francés-uruguayo-argentino sobreviviente del Holocausto y escritor/Polish-French-Uruguayan- Argentine Holocaust Survivor and Writer

To buy Charles Papiernik’s Unbroken

HOMENAJE A CHARLES PAPIERNIK

(1917-2017)

Por Steve Sadow

En el momento de conocerlo en Buenos Aires en 2001, entendí inmediatamente que Charles Papiernik era la persona más merecedora de respeto y admiración que jamás había conocido. Diez y seis años más tarde no he cambiado de opinión. Hasta su muerte en 2007, Charles era energético, luchador y testarudo. También era adorable; como si poseyera un campo de fuerza que atrajera a otros hacia él. Pero era obvio que llevaba un gran cargo. Sin embargo, su sonrisa era lista and radiante. Era un verdadero “resiliente”.

Charles Papiernik era sobreviviente de cuatro años en Auschwitz y campos de concentración en Francia. Como testimonio de lo que había sufrido, escribió su autobiografía en París de 1946, muy poco después de ser liberado de Auschwitz. En este testimonio, contaba de los horrores que había observado en los campos. Su tono es muy personal. Describe a individuos que conoció, fueran prisioneros o asesinos nazi. Hablaba de “Escuela de construcción” donde él tenía que enseñar a judíos y gitanos jóvenes y cómo edificar campos de concentración nuevos. Allí, Papiernik trataba de ayudar a sus estudiantes o por lo menos extender sus vidas.

Después de la liberación, el Joint Distribution Committee lo traslado con su futura esposa Micheline a Montevideo donde vivía su hermana mayor. ¡Un año después, llegó de ser dueño de una fábrica de ropa de mujer! En los años 70, fue manager de otra empresa en Buenos Aires. Después de jubilarse a los setenta y cinco años, con su esposa Micheline, se convirtieron en portavoces de los sobrevivientes argentinos, dando testimonio sobre el Holocausto a organizaciones judías y no-judías por las ciudades y pueblos argentinos, en universidades, escuelas públicas y privadas argentinas y en el exterior.

Charles me pidió que tradujera su autobiografía. No vacilé en decirle que sí por razones personales y porque sabía que, en los Estados Unidos no tenían idea de que centenares de sobrevivientes y sus familias

vivieran en Sudamérica. Durante varias de mis visitas a Buenos Aires nos reunimos en su departamento para charlar, mientras comíamos la deliciosa cuisine judío-francesa de Micheline. Siempre me sentía muy en familia. Charles me contó de sus experiencias inimaginables y de las pesadillas espantosas que le perseguían desde los años 40.

Ilán Stavans, mi editor, me sugirió que Charles agregara una sección a la autobiografía que tratara de su vivía en el Uruguay y la Argentina después de la guerra. A Charles le encantó la idea. Con la ayuda de nuestro amigo Mario Ber, Charles que ya tenía más de ochenta años, relató de su familia, sus trabajos y su experiencia como portavoz de los sobrevivientes de la Shoá.

Titulado Unbroken: From Auschwitz a Buenos Aires (Inquebrantable: De Auschwitz a Buenos Aires), el libro fue publicado en 2004 por la University of New Mexico Press. Se vendió bien. Actualmente, 175 bibliotecas universitarias y públicas, en diez países, guardan copias del libro para que puedan leerlas sus lectores y las pidan de préstamo gente de todo el mundo.

Charles a la edad de ochenta y cuatro años, con Micheline, sus hijas Elena de Buenos Aires y Francis de Montevideo y su nieta Avital, la hija de Francis, cinco en total, volaron a Boston para participar en dos eventos que tuvieron lugar en “el Espacio Sagrado” un salón especial de Northeastern University donde yo era profesor. La primera noche, Charles disertó por más de una hora en una mezcla de español e idish. Yo le traduje al inglés para que lo entendieran los asistentes. La segunda noche, armamos un panel de la familia entera. Era necesario imponer límites a Charles para que los otros pudieran hablar sobre sus vidas como sobreviviente, hijas de sobrevivientes y nieta de sobrevivientes en Uruguay, Argentina e Israel.

Charles Papiernik tuvo una vida extraordinaria: estudiante del Talmud en Polonia, hombre joven en la Paris de los años 30, socio del Bund en Francia, una organización judío-socialista, luchador por los derechos humanos, preso en los campos de concentración nazis, dueño y manager de empresas en dos países latinoamericanos, como portavoz del Holocausto y sobre todo como esposo, padre, abuelo y bisabuelo.

Lo extraño mucho.

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HOMAGE TO CHARLES PAPIERNIK

(1917-2017)

By Steve Sadow

Frim the moment I met him in Buenos Aires in 2001, I understood that Charles Papiernik was the person most worthy of respect and admiration that I had ever known. Sixteen years later, I have not changed my mind.

Until his death in 2007, Charles was energetic, feisty and stubborn. He was also loveable; it was as if he possessed a force field that drew others to him. But it was obvious that he bore a great burden. Nevertheless, his smile was quick and a radiant. He was a truly “resilient person.”

Charles Papiernik was a survivor of four years in Auschwitz and concentration camps in France. As a testament to what he had suffered, he wrote his autobiography in Paris in 1946, very shortly after he was liberated. In his testament, he told of the horrors of what he had observed in the camps. His tone is quite personal. He describes the individuals he knew, be they prisoners or Nazi murderers. He spoke of the “Construction School” where he had to teach Jewish and Gypsy young men how to build new concentration camps. There, Papiernik tried to help his students or at least extend their lives.

After Liberation, the Joint Distribution Committee brought him with his future wife Micheline to Montevideo, where his elder sister lived. A year, later, he was the owner of a women’s clothing factory!  Then, in the 1970s, he became the manager of another such firm in Buenos Aires. After retiring at seventy-five, he and his wife Micheline became spokespersons for Argentine Holocaust survivors, giving testimony about the Holocaust to Jewish and non-Jewish organizations in the cities and towns of Argentina, in universities, public and private schools in Argentina and in other countries.

Charles asked me to translate his autobiography into English. I immediately agreed, for personal reasons, and because I knew that in the United States, nobody knew that there were hundreds of survivors and their families living in Latin America. During several of my visits to Buenos Aires, we met in his apartment to chat, while we ate Micheline’s delicious French-Jewish cuisine. I always felt very much at home. Charles told me about his unimaginable experiences and of the horrible dreams that pursued him since the 1940s.

Ilan Stavans, my editor, suggested to me that Charles add a section to the autobiography that dealt with his life in Uruguay and Argentina after the war. Charles was delighted by the idea. With the help of our mutual friend Mario Ber, Charles, who was by then over eighty years old, related stories about his family, his work and his experiences as a spokesperson for Holocaust survivors.

Entitled Unbroken: From Auschwitz a Buenos Aires (Inquebrantable: De Auschwitz a Buenos Aires,) the autobiography was published by the University of New Mexico Press in 2004. It sold well. Currently, 175 university and public libraries, in ten countries, hold copies that are available to their readers and through inter-library loan to people world-wide.

When he was eighty-four years old, Charles, along with Micheline, their daughters Elena and Francis, and their granddaughter Avital, Francis’ daughter, five in all, flew to Boston to participate in two events that took place in the “Sacred Space,” a special room at Northeastern University, where I was a professor. The first night, Charles lectured in a mixture of Spanish and Yiddish. I interpreted his words into English so the attendees could understand. The second night, we put together a panel of the entire family. It was necessary to put limits on Charles, so that the others had time to speak about their lives as a survivor, daughters of survivors and a granddaughter of survivors in Uruguay, Argentina and Israel.

Charles Papiernik had an extraordinary life: as a student of the Talmud in Poland, a young man in the Paris of the 1930s, a member of the Bund, the Jewish-Socialist organization, fighter for human rights, inmate in Nazi concentration camps, owner and manager of businesses in two Latin American countries, and a spokesperson for Holocaust survivors, and above all as a husband, father, grandfather and great-grandfather.

I miss him greatly.

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Introduction to the Kabbalah/Introducción a la Cábala

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In Provence and Navarre, Spain, toward the end of the twelfth century and in Castile, a bit later, The Kabbalah (The Received Tradition,) the Jewish system of visionary thinking, was conceived, debated and always hidden from view. Through the study of the ancient Hebrew texts such as the Sefer Bahir (the Book of Illumination,) the Sefer Yetsirah (The Book of Creation) and many other treatises, these early Kabbalists commented on the characteristics of God, (among these are: Hod (Splendor) and the balanced forces of Hesed (Love) y Din (Judgment) creation and the cosmos.  Their speculations culminated in the Zohar (The Book of Splendor,) an enormous and multi-layered commentary on the Tanach, The Five Books of Moses. Most of the Zohar was written in the thirteenth century by Moisés de León, a Spanish Jew who purported to have translated the work from ancient Aramaic.

Roughly fifty years after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, in Safed, Eretz Yisroel, Rabbi Yitzhak Luria, also known by his acronym HaAri orThe Lion, revolutionized the Kabbalistic understanding of the creation of material world, the nature of evil, the ability of man to repair the world, exile, redemption, the Messiah and also the relationships among these themes. Luria did not write down his ideas, he stated them. Chaim Vital, was the most important transcriber of Luria’s Kabbalistic talks, but others also took notes, and the emphasis put on each of Luria’s central ideas varies greatly among them.

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Comenzando a fines del siglo doce en Provenza, Navarra, España y un poco más tarde en Castilia, el sistema de pensamiento visionario, La Cábala (La tradición recibida) fue concibida , debatida y casi siembre ocultada. Por el estudio del Sefer Bahir , Sefer Yetsirá (el Libro de Esplendor)  y muchos otros tratados, esos cabalistas tempranos comentaban sobre las características de Dios, la creación y el cosmos. Estas especulaciones colminaron en El Zohar (El Libro de Esplendor,) un enorme y de multilayer comentario sobre el Tanach, los cinco libros de Moisés. En gran parte, El Zohar fue escrito por Moisés de León, un judío español.

En Sefat, Eretz Yisrael, unos cinquenta años después de la expulsión de los judíos de Espańa en 1492, el Rabino Yitzhak Luria, concocido también por su acrónimo HaAri, o el León, revolucionó el entendimiento cabalístico de la creación del mundo material, la naturaleza del mal, el remeniendo del mundo, el exilio, la redención, el Mesías y la relación entre ellos. Luria no escribió sobre sus conceptos.us estudiantes, Chaim Vital, en particular, transcribieron sus charlas. Por eso, hay variantes en el enfoque sobre unas de sus ideas centrales.

 

Steve Sadow

 

 

“Con-textos” Notes on the Art Show in Havana/Notas sobre la muestra de arte en La Habana

 

The exhibition “Con-textos” took place in the Servando Cabrera Gallery in Havana. It was supported by the Argentine Embassy in Cuba and the Government of Cuba. As far as we can ascertain, this show is the first time that works of art and creative commentaries, inspired by each work have been shown together.

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Nora Seilicovich, was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina. She graduated as an architect at the University of Buenos Aires, where she studied Drawing, Painting and Engraving.Since 1980 she has held exhibitions and art showrooms, both individual and collectively, in museums, centers and cultural places in Argentina and abroad. Several works belong to private collections in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Spain, Italy, Great Britain, Cuba and USA.

Colors and movement are shown in all of her works. Using digital elements is part of the process in which the artist manages to make her characters come alive, through graphic art tools that allow the interaction with objects and places. The choice and combination of techniques are central to Nora Silicosis’s creations. Nora returns to her unique characters and reorients them. She inserts them into situations that are not expected by spectators and by themselves. Nora’s creatures inhabit complex combinations of time and places.

 

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La muestra “Con-textos” tuvo lugar en la galería Servando Cabrera en La Habana. Fue patrocinada por la Embajada Argentina y el Gobierno Cubano.Que sepamos es la primera vez que se ha combinado arte y comentarios creativos, inspirados por cada obra.

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Nora Seilicovich, nació en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Se graduó como arquitecta en la Universidad de Buenos Aires. Cursó estudios de Dibujo, Pintura y Grabado. Desde 1980 realiza exposiciones y muestras, tanto individuales como colectivas, en museos, casas y espacios culturales en Argentina y en el exterior. Varias de las obras pertenecen a colecciones privadas en  Argentina, Brasil, México, España, Italia, Gran Bretaña, Cuba y EEUU.

Los colores y el movimiento se hacen presentes en cada uno de sus trabajos. El encuentro con lo digital es parte del proceso en el que la artista logra que sus personajes cobren vida, a través de herramientas gráficas que permiten la interacción con objetos y lugares. Elección y combinación de técnicas son creación propia de Nora Seilicovich. Nora retoma sus característicos personajes y los re-orienta. Los inserta en situaciones poco esperadas por espectador y por ellos mismos…Los seres de Nora habitan complejas combinaciones e épocas y lugares.